Adolescents should be educated on sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases. Should this course be mandatory in schools? Microbicides as means of HIV prevention.
Which one is more effective in fighting the epidemic? Asia as a new AIDS epidemic center. Attitudes towards working or studying with HIV-affected individuals. Essay on fire prevention is better than cure for aids. Essay on aids prevention is better than cure for aids Aids Awareness Essay Wikipedia.
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More and more people are being diagnosed with these life-threatening viruses. HIV is similar to other viruses like the flu or common cold except the human immune system cannot destroy the virus. The virus can hide in the cells of the body for long periods of time and attacks important parts of the immune system like T-cells or CD4 cells. Most people do not really know what HIV stands for. HIV attacks the part of your body that fights disease better known as the immune system.
The virus makes the immune system shut down and stop working. The immune system shutting down is the worst part about HIV not having any signs or symptoms to notify you of the virus is the worst part. AIDS is the abbreviation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. Its mechanism of action is that it breaks down the immune system i. AIDS is the disease that an individual with HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus has a chance of getting when their immune system becomes so damaged, opening up the body to many different illnesses.
According to medical research not everyone who has HIV will in fact be advance to the final stage of the disease, especially when caught and treated early on. Psychosocial Support Psychosocial support is an integral component of the multidisciplinary management strategies that care providers regard as essential for people with HIV Murphy and others Support for patients and families can have a positive effect on adherence to therapies and can contribute to the critical aim of integrating prevention with treatment and care.
Cook's study of U. Although few data are available on the costs of various strategies, interventions for psychosocial support appear to be cost-effective—especially where innovative solutions, such as group counseling sessions, are implemented.
Although studies indicate an improved quality of life for these patients, little information is available on the cost of the interventions.
Additional evaluation research is needed to guide decisions about how much to invest in psychosocial support. Nutrition Programs and Food Security Strong evidence indicates that malnutrition and AIDS work in tandem at both the individual and the societal levels.
This reciprocity must be considered when planning specific program responses. Protein deficiency is a well-known cause of cell-mediated immunodeficiency Vanek HIV-infected individuals need to consume more energy than uninfected individuals: as much as 10 percent greater consumption for asymptomatic individuals and 20 to 30 percent more for symptomatic individuals.
Malnutrition alters the susceptibility of individuals to HIV infection and their vulnerability to its various sequelae, increases the risk of HIV transmission from mothers to babies, and accelerates the progression of HIV infection Gillespie, Haddad, and Jackson Small studies of adults with AIDS, including those on anti-retroviral therapy, have shown that daily micronutrient supplementation increases bodyweight, reduces HIV RNA levels, improves CD4 counts, and reduces the incidence of opportunistic infections.
The guidelines cite three types of nutrition supplements: food rations to manage mild weight loss and nutrition-related side effects of antiretroviral therapy and to address nutritional needs in food-secure areas; micronutrient supplements for specific HIV-positive risk groups; and therapeutic foods for addressing moderate and severe malnutrition in HIV-positive adults and children. Cost-effectiveness data in support of these recommendations are not available, but the low costs of supplementation, coupled with the likely benefits to other malnourished household members, suggest that such interventions will be highly cost-effective.
The epidemic is stunting progress in rural development and causing significant increases in rural poverty and destitution in the countries most affected by the epidemic Bonnard Thus, interventions must consider the epidemic's impact on the broader community and not solely on people living with the disease. Care-related household and community-level interventions include school feeding with special take-home rations for families caring for orphans, food for training programs that promote income-generating activities, and food for work to support homestead production activities Van Liere Such programs targeted at communities at especially high risk are likely to be even more cost-effective World Food Programme Treatment of Opportunistic Infections and Secondary Prophylaxis Even as the availability of antiretroviral therapy increases in many developing countries, appropriate diagnosis and management of life-threatening opportunistic infections, including HIV-associated cancers, remain the most important aspects of the care of patients with HIV disease.
Opportunistic infections usually begin five to seven years after infection Munoz, Sabin, and Phillips and occur progressively as uncontrolled HIV replication destroys the immune system Colebunders and Latif Figure Opportunistic infections are typically caused by organisms that exist in the environment of the body on the skin, in the lungs and gastrointestinal system and remain latent until HIV has impaired the immune system. Each infection has its unique clinical expression, requiring specific diagnostic techniques and treatment.
In high-income countries, antiretroviral therapy has so effectively controlled viral replication that the process of HIV-related immune destruction has been slowed or halted, leading to marked declines in the incidence of opportunistic infections and a dramatic reduction in their resultant high death toll McNaghten and others Unfortunately, the emerging problem of poor adherence to drug regimes is now making HIV resistance to antiretroviral therapy more prevalent in high-income countries, triggering a resurgence of opportunistic infections.
More than 20 infections and cancers have been associated with severe immune depletion. The most common pathogens and cancers include bacteria such as Mycobacteria tuberculosis and avium; protozoa such as Cryptosporidium, Strongyloides, and Toxoplasma; fungi such as Candida, PCP, Cryptococcus, Aspergillis, and Penicillium the latter largely restricted to South and Southeast Asia ; viruses such as cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and herpes zoster; and cancers such as Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
The range of complications arising from continued HIV infection varies from country to country, reflecting the differences in infectious agents that populations have encountered earlier in life or are exposed to when immunosuppressed. In high-income countries, the most common opportunistic infections are PCP, esophageal candidiasis, cytomegalovirus retinitis, cryptococcal meningitis, toxoplasma encephalopathy, cryptosporidium diarrhea, and human herpes virus—8 and Kaposi sarcoma Bacellar and others ; Hoover and others ; Lanjewar and others ; Selik, Starcher, and Curran In resource-limited countries, because of the higher background prevalence of infectious agents, it is more common to encounter tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, toxo-plasma encephalopathy, infectious diarrhea, and nonspecific wasting slim disease Hira and others ; Hira, Dore, and Sirisanthana a ; Sengupta, Lal, and Srinivas In high-income countries, reports on the natural history of untreated HIV infection suggest that AIDS occurs between 7 and 10 years after infection Alcabes and others ; Lui and others The time can be as short as 24 months Anzala and others in some individuals, whereas some long-term survivors remain disease free for longer than 15 years Easterbrook In developing countries, disease progression, though not as well studied, appears to be more rapid Morgan and others Once an AIDS-defining illness occurs, the average time to death seems to be similar across countries, reported at approximately 12 to 18 months in Uganda and the United States Carre and others Ignorance of is the causes and methods of transfer of HIV and it only makes a bad situation fully worse.
It is imperative, therefore, that people be made aware of what AIDS is, how it spreads and what can be done to prevent infection. Governments and non-profit organizations have instituted various programs not only to do health check-ups but also to dispel the prejudice that attaches itself to this disease and those who suffer from it.
Awareness programs have spread information about HIV and how to prevent it for years now and their efforts have borne fruit. The results speak for themselves. The percentage of people with HIV has reduced considerably. So that people do not become complacent and forget that AIDS is still very much a player in the deadly diseases field various awareness initiatives have been undertaken, the most prominent of which is World AIDS Day — a day when people show their solidarity with those who are afflicted with this disease and remember those who were struck down by it.
Other initiatives target vulnerable people and communities so that they are fully informed and able to prevent the disease from spreading. Conclusion While new therapies can help in controlling HIV from spreading all over the body, awareness is the key to actually prevent AIDS from spreading across populations.
It also helps to remind one that while the pandemic is under control now it is by no means gone and carelessness or apathy will definitely ensure that it comes roaring back. Thanks to various myths and misconceptions about the syndrome, the virus spread like wildfire and infected millions of people before it could be contained.
Thanks to concerted efforts by governments across the world, advancements in medicine and awareness campaigns, the number of HIV positive people has reduced. However, no cure for the disease has been found yet. In these circumstances, it becomes imperative that we focus on prevention to get to the root of the problem.
There are three main ways in which HIV can move around from one person to another — unprotected sexual intercourse with an HIV positive partner, transfer of HIV from mother to child, either during pregnancy or during breast feeding, transfusion of blood and needle sharing amongst drug users. Therefore, any preventative measures need to take these factors into account. Many health centres in different countries offer testing kits. Practice safe sex — Since one of the major reasons for the massive spread of the virus is unprotected sex, it is absolutely imperative that you practice safe sex.
Since the infection wakens the immune system, the infected is most likely to develop a series of infections not found in a non infected person like persistent fever, night sweating, and lesions in tongue or mouth and skin rashes. Besides providing students with hiv aids essay research paper cheap custom written research papers paper sim girls aged years. What should people be careful of? They might be flat or raised. Antibiotic , antifungal, or antiparasitic drugs can help treat an OI. Bbc creative leadership essay Bbc creative leadership essay, iim ahmedabad research paper henry james turn of the screw essays about love.
TB causes a severe lung infection as well as weight loss, fever, and tiredness, and can also infect the brain, lymph nodes, bones, or kidneys.
However, the estimated cost-effectiveness for the same intervention directed toward young people and high-risk men is to fold lower. Limited data have shown differences in students who have been exposed to school-based sex education summarized in table Aside from managing HIV viral load with medications, a person who lives with the disease must take precautions, including the following steps: Wear condoms to prevent other STIs.
Study aids dissertation abstract RebeccAnne Morgan Photography e commerce research papers nba. The illness alters the immune system, making people much more vulnerable to infections and diseases. They consist of proms, weddings, sex shops, escort services, brothels and several others. AIDS-related causes killed 62, people in the same year.
However, with the treatments now available to rein in the spread of the disease, patients suffering from HIV can still lead long, healthy and productive lives.
It has been estimated that more than 21 million people have died from AIDS. The epidemic is stunting progress in rural development and causing significant increases in rural poverty and destitution in the countries most affected by the epidemic Bonnard South Africa has the largest antiretroviral treatment program in the world. Essay writing on hiv aids Degree s Essays www cycleforums com Design Options. The time from presentation with an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection to death depends on the type of infection, the availability of care, and the patient's adherence to prescribed prophylaxis and treatment.