You may have fewer than 6. Create the figures and tables, and write the legends for each. Ensure that each legend is stand-alone from the main text. Circulate your choice of up to 6 display items with legends to your co-authors. Revise accordingly, iterate until everyone is happy with selection and presentation. That is, 20 double-spaced manuscript pages, or 6 printed pages as it would appear in the journal. How long is this? Approximately words of text per journal page, or 50 references, or 4 display items.
So, roughly 3. If you need to write more e. A rule of thumb split is , , , , , but it varies depending on how much context setting is required, how many lines of evidence you are using, etc. Yet, despite this, it surprisingly often works out at roughly this ratio. For each section, plan the paragraphs. Then, play around with the arrangement of the paragraphs until you are satisfied with the logical flow.
If you wish, add to each paragraph some additional notes, key words, indications of reference to cite, display items to refer to, etc. Helps elaborate on the word main message.
Circulate the skeleton to co-authors and invite critical feedback. Write the paragraphs! If you write a proposal to your immediate supervisor, closest colleague or a specialist reviewer, they will have an implied background against which they can judge the merits of your work. Most assessors will not have this or they will for a limited field only , so you have to be almost patronising about explaining yourself in the proposal.
Do not assume any existing knowledge, explain all your terminology see more below , and tell them repeatedly why the subject is important and compelling. Track record, track record, track record. Instead, they focus mainly on the reputation and track record of the person s proposing the research. After all, a research grant is an award, so think of the proposal as an application for a prize. The funder needs to know that they will be funding a person whose proven reputation, skills and output will guarantee the return on their investment i.
Never underestimate the value of a good team of collaborators. Never underestimate the value of a good title. Just like in product marketing, a catchy title and a clever opening will potentially get you the attention you need to stand out among the hundreds or thousands of other researchers vying for the same pot of gold. Please tell us immediately what you are intending to research. You might think it is, so might your partner and your grandmother, but does anyone else?
Do not take it as given that your chosen topic Point 2 notwithstanding is of any interest whatsoever to anyone else. You have to explain, in gory detail, what makes it so bloody fascinating and essential that you do the research now.
As an assessor, I want to end up being as excited by it as you, so sell yourself. In other words, why does society need to invest in your research if nothing practical will result? Remember, you are competing with many others for a paltry sum. Proposing a difficult, elaborate and risky research project will only lead to disappointment. A working rule of thumb is that if you have some established track record in the area of proposed research e.
Individual chromosomes were cut out from the photograph and arranged in a karyotype. By virtue of the presence of two X-chromosomes, the karyotype indicates that the developing fetus is a female.
Based on other information data not presented , the fetus is expected to emerge March 19, A table caption is freestanding text located above the table. It presents a succinct statement of the contents of the table.
An example is Table 1. A caption must NOT include information about methods, how the data are expressed, or any abbreviations if needed, those are included as footnotes to the table, with each footnote keyed to a footnote reference in the table by sequential, lettered superscripts. Discussion The discussion section is where you explain your results in detail, speculating on trends, possible causes, and conclusions.
Try to present the principles, relationships, and generalizations shown by the Results. And bear in mind, in a good Discussion, you discuss--you do not recapitulate-- the Results.
Don't be shy; discuss the theoretical implications of your work, as well as any possible practical applications. A good discussion section References or References Cited The References section is a complete list of all references that you cited within your paper. The references are listed in alphabetical order by last name of the first author of each publication. Include only those references that you have actually read and that you specifically mention in your paper.
If a laboratory handout was used it is only a beginning and must be cited. When researching for information for the Introduction and Discussion sections or the paper, seek out original sources that are written by experts in the field e. Scientific American and books written by well respected scientists. Textbooks, although acceptable in this class as a last resort, are rarely cited in the scientific papers since information in textbooks is less reliable than from the original sources.
In-Text Citations Citation formats are often discipline specific. Footnotes or endnotes are not normally used in scientific writing as they are in humanities and the social sciences. Because natural scientists most often use the Name-Year System, we will use this system in this course. All citations occur in the text in parentheses, with the author s and date of publication. For example: Clinton found that naked foxes run on grass four times faster than those wearing pantyhose do.
Alternatively: On grass surfaces, naked foxes run four times faster than those wearing pantyhose Clinton If there is more than one author of a source, simply use the first author's last name, followed by et al. For example, Clinton et al. The complete list of authors will appear in the full citation at the end of your paper. The format of the References section varies slightly from one scientific journal to another. Use the following as examples for citing various kinds of sources in for this course Publication year.
It may help to be working on more than one manuscript at a time, to avoid time wasting not that any of you should be doing that! However, this shortlist was still over eleven pages long and covered a vast range of different options. Never underestimate the value of a good title. This is a brief, all encompassing section summarizing what you discuss in the rest of the paper, and should be written last, after you know what you have said!
Engage with the editor. Epidemiology for primary health care. Circulate the finished draft ms to your co-authors and give them sufficient time say 2 weeks for feedback. This section should be written in the past tense when referring to this experiment.