You should spend about 25 minutes on each paragraph. The best way to divide your time is as follows: thinking out your description: about 5 minutes; writing: about IS minutes; re-reading: about 5 minutes. Give each description a title. Numbers should form the first sentences of your paragraphs; numbers II-QO the last; in numbers you have been given the first and last and should supply those which come between. First Sentences I. At night the main street of the town is brilliantly lit.
Everyone turned round to look at the man who had entered the restaurant. The bus was so crowded I could hardly breathe. I lay in bed warm and comfortable listening to the rain beating against the windows. The house next door to ours is very large. The climb to the top of the tower had been well worth the effort. A huge crowd had collected to look at the hole in the road. The room was beautifully furnished. The flood-water reached its highest point next day. Last Sentences II. We were all relieved to hear that aunt Beatrice had decided to leave.
The ship had now become a dot on the horizon. It was the best game I had ever seen. We learnt later that the zebra had escaped from the circus.
Just missing the tree-tops, the plane landed in the field. We prepared to spend yet another night in the desert. Just at this point I woke up. From where I stood, I could just see a small white house at the bottom of the valley. The snow had now begun to melt.
He was certainly the strangest man I have ever met. You must do all you can to make your essays interesting so that they will hold the reader's attention to the very end. To achieve this it is not necessary to go to absurd lengths to be original. All you need do is to include incidents and details which are drawn from everyday life or which you have imagined.
The most unpromising subject can, be turned into an exciting essay. Let us suppose that you have to write about 'A Day at the Seaside'. This may seem to you a typically' dull' topic. If all you have to say in the or so words at your disposal is that you went to the beach, had a swim, had something to eat, and then went home, you will have written a typically dull composition. An essay can be as dull or as interesting as you care to make it. Here are a few details which could be included in this particular topic: the colourful scene on the beach: sun-shades, tents, bathing-costumes; sun - or rain; sunbathing; children building sandcastles - looking for shells; games on the beach; people afraidto take the first plunge; people in difficulties in the sea; learning to swim; the pleasure of swimming; diving; water-skiing; coming out of the water; hot sand; sand in your hair, your clothes; people burying themselves in sand; a picnic on the beach; a restaurant; a fun-fair; thejourney home: hot, tired, happy, still thinking of the sea.
Once you have found something definite to say, your essay will be interesting to read. UNITY Just as it is important to connect your sentences within a paragraph, you should make sure that your paragraphs lead on naturally to each other.
Answer the question closely. Do not repeat yourself. Make lure that every paragraph adds something new to the essay. The length of a paragraph will depend on what you have to say; however do not let yourself be carried away by fascinating but unimportant details. If, for instance, in the subject given above, you were to spend a whole page describing how you got to the seaside and then one or two paragraphs more to say what you did there, your essay would be unbalanced.
Never attempt to write an essay in a single paragraph. TEST FOR QUALITY If in your effort to reach the word-limit you find yourself counting the number of words you have used every time you add another sentence to the essay, it is a sure sign that there is something basically wrong with your treatment of the subject. If you are so bored with your own writing that you have to keep counting the number of words to find out if you are nearing the end, it is more than likely that your teacher will be equally bored when he has to read what you have written.
If your essay gave you pleasure to write, it is quite probable that it will be enjoyable to read. This is a good - but not always reliable - test for quality. While doing so, keep a sharp look out for grammatical mistakes - especially those connected with word order or the sequence of tenses.
Try to develop the habit of not repeating a mistake once it has been pointed out to you. Make sure that it has to do with the subject, but it should not give the reader too much information. Your first paragraph should set the scene. The most exciting part of your story should come at the end.
In this way you will keep the reader in suspense. Do not spoil your story by , throwing away' the most interesting part of it in the first sentence or paragraph. The general outline for stories should be as follows: Before the event The event After the event Before working on your plan try to decide what the main event will be so that you can build your story round it. It is not always necessary to make out a full, detailed plan. But it is wise to note a few ideas under each heading so that you have a fairly clear picture of what you are going to say before you begin writing.
Remember that a plan is only a guide. It is always possible to ignore your original scheme if a more interesting way of developing your story suddenly occurs to you after you have begun writing. Cross out your plan neatly with a single line when you have Narrative completed it so that it is possible for your teacher to refer to it if necessary.
Examine carefully the plan below, then read the essay that follows. PLAN I. Midnight: bridge - cold - dark. Frank on bridge. Someone approaching. Effect on him. Steps come nearer. Frank turns to look. Pretends to stop - sees stranger: description. The event 5. Conversation: man wants information. Frank suspicious. Outside house: lights, man over wall. After the event 7. Frank now sure - telephone-box.
The night air was cold and damp. A low mist hung over the river and the street-lamps gave little light. Frank was anxious to get home and his footsteps rang loudly on the pavement. When he reached the middle of the bridge he thought he could hear someone approaching behind him. He looked back but could see no one. However, the sound continued and Frank began walking more quickly. Then he slowed down again, ashamed of himself for acting so foolishly.
There was nothing to fear in a town as quiet as this. The short, quick steps grew louder until they seemed very near. Frank found it impossible not to turn round. As he did so, he caught sight of a figure coming towards him. After reaching the other side of the bridge, Frank stopped and pretended to look down at the water. From the corner of his eye he could now make out the form of a man dressed in a large overcoat.
A hat was pulled down over his eyes and very little of his face could be seen. As the man came near, Frank turned towards him and said something about the weather in an effort to be friendly. The man did not answer but asked gruffly where Oakfield House was. Frank pointed to a big house in the distance and the stranger continued his way. Thessay The inquiry made Frank suspicious because he knew that the inhabitants of Oakfield House were very wealthy.
Almost without realizing what he was doing, he began following the stranger quietly. The man was soon outside the house and Frank saw him look up at the windows. A light was still on and the man waited until it went out. When about half an hour had passed, Frank saw him climb noiselessly over the wall and heard him drop on to the ground at the other side.
Now Frank's worst suspicions were confirmed. He walked quickly and silently across the street towards a telephone-box on the corner. What relationship is there between the plan and the story? Pick out as many details as you can which you think have been in- cluded to make the story interesting.
What is the function of the first paragraph in the story? Where is the most exciting part of the story to be found? Show how the paragraphs lead on naturally to one another.
How has this been done? How does the idea of the bridge give the story its unity? Do you consider the story to be well-balanced?
Give reasons for your answer. How suitable is the title? Exercises Instructions Write stories using each of the paragraphs given below. The length should be between and words; do not include the paragraph or paragraphs given in the total number of words.
You should spend about an hour and a quarter on each story. The best way to divide your time is as follows: plan: minutes; writing: 50 minutes; re-reading: minutes. Give each story a title. Numbers should form the first paragraphs of your stories; numbers the Jast; in numbers you have been given the first and last and should supply those which come between. First Paragraphs 1. Mr Soames woke up with a start and was surprised to find the gallery so quiet and almost dark.
Just in front of him on the wall there was a forgotten painting by some Old Master. As he looked at it, he suddenly remembered where he was. The dreadful realization came over him all at once: he had been shut up in the museum! Narrative: exercises 2. The man opposite me in the train was pretending to read a newspaper. Every time I looked up, I found that he was looking at me over the top of the paper. I pretended not to notice, but the man's strange expression made me feel nervous.
In the end, I could not bear it any longer, so I got up and went into the corridor. The restaurant did not seem very inviting. There are several main structures into which essays can be grouped: Narrative Essays: Tell a story or impart information about your subject in a straightforward, orderly manner.
Descriptive Essays: Focus on the details of what is going on. For example, if you want to write a descriptive essay about your trip to the park, you would give great detail about what you experienced: how the grass felt beneath your feet, what the park benches looked like, and anything else the reader would need to feel as if he were there.
Persuasive Essay: Convince the reader of some point of view. Comparative Essay: Compare two or more different things. Expository Essay: Explain to the reader how to do a given process. You could, for example, write an expository essay with step-by-step instructions on how to make a peanut butter sandwich.
Knowing what kind of essay you are trying to write can help you decide on a topic and structure your essay in the best way possible. Brainstorming You cannot write an essay unless you have an idea of what to write about. Brainstorming is the process in which you come up with the essay topic. You need to simply sit and think of ideas during this phase. Write down everything that comes to mind as you can always narrow those topics down later. You could also use clustering or mind mapping to brainstorm and come up with an essay idea.
This involves writing your topic or idea in the center of the paper and creating bubbles clouds or clusters of related ideas around it. This can be a great way to develop a topic more deeply and to recognize connections between various facets of your topic. You want to choose a topic that is neither too broad nor too narrow. Instead, you could write about a very specific event within the history of the United States: perhaps signing the Declaration of Independence or when Columbus discovered the U.
Choose the best topic from among them and begin moving forward on writing your essay. Research Once you have done your brainstorming and chosen your topic, you may need to do some research to write a good essay. Go to the library or look on the Internet for information about your topic. Interview people who might be experts in the subject.
Keep your research organized so it will be easy for you to refer back to, and easy for you to cite your sources when writing your final essay. Developing a Thesis Your thesis is the main point of your essay.
It is essentially one sentence that says what the essay is about.
The tone and format of a formal letter should be well versed with before attempting to write this kind of a letter. When about half an hour had passed, Frank saw him climb noiselessly over the wall and heard him drop on to the ground at the other side. Everyone turned round to look at the man who had entered the restaurant. You also want to ensure you have transitions between paragraphs so the reader understands how the paper flows from one idea to the next.
You should spend about 25 minutes on each paragraph. After the event 7.
He looked back but could see no one. He had long declared that he was against trees and especially the ones round the house which, he said, made the place damp and gloomy. Just missing the tree-tops, the plane landed in the field.
First Sentences I. Frank found it impossible not to turn round. Mother did her best to dissuade him saying that he would bring the whole building down on our heads and kill us all. Narrative: exercises 2. Check for grammar problems, punctuation and spelling errors.
The bus was so crowded I could hardly breathe. The man hit the policeman so hard that he fell down. Just then the boss came in. Everyone turned round to look at the man who had entered the restaurant. Once you have found something definite to say, your essay will be interesting to read.
There are several main structures into which essays can be grouped: Narrative Essays: Tell a story or impart information about your subject in a straightforward, orderly manner. Expository Essay: Explain to the reader how to do a given process. Just at this point I woke up.
As we gazed at the back of the lorry, we wondered whether we would ever be able to get to the harbour in time.
Descriptive: exercises Exercises Instructions Write one-paragraph descriptions using each of the sentences given below. Just at this point I woke up. There was another burst just behind him.
Make sure each paragraph ties back in to your thesis and creates a cohesive, understandable essay. We prepared to spend yet another night in the desert.