There is aggression everyday and it can be seen in all different forms. Where ever you go there will be some type of aggression. While doing research, I learned new things about psychological aggression and affects aggression has on people.
The Milgram experiment can show you how psychological affects the humans nature on aggression. A behavioral characteristic that exist in all people is aggression. In some aggression is a problem and is harder to control than in others.
Aggression is classified as any action carried out with the intention of harming another person Coon, and Millerer There are several factors that can contribute to aggression in people such as the environment they are in and some physical factors. Wann SV;SV. Fights and violence in sports has been on the rise as of lately.
Players are being much more aggressive than ever before. Sports such as these thrive off of violence and they must if they are to stay around. Violent video games have previously been identified to be the most popular video games played by consumers. According to this approach, most behaviour including aggressive behaviour is learned. Albert Bandura believed that aggression is learned through a process called behaviour modelling.
How can we help ourselves and others to understand what aggression is? For example, aggression can be positive or negative, accidental or intended and physical or mental.
Aggression takes many forms, because of jealousy, insecurity, anxiety, revenge, antisocial personality, alcohol, and drugs. Even though all individuals are uniquely different, they all experience frustrations, but for different reasons. For example, almost everyone becomes frustrated with a computer, some literally destroy the inept machine, but not everyone takes out their aggression on the equipment.
Not all aggression is violent. Baron and Richardson claim aggression is a form of anti-social behaviour, which shows a lack of emotional concern for the welfare of others. There are various explanations for the cause of aggression, one of them being the biological explanation. The theory suggests that certain experiences, or affects, can contribute toward the onset of aggressive feelings or behaviour.
These affects can range from weather conditions e. But what causes anger and aggression and why do we all suffer from it? There is a term often referred to by Hobbes as survival machines Pinker Humans are born with the capacity for violence; it is not invented but rather, instigated We are able to connect — instantly — with people of all ages, genders, and races, all across the globe.
Social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram allow users to send images and text posts to their friends or to the public, that is, anyone on the internet who happens upon their post or cares to run a simple search for it or for the user. This provides many incredible opportunities for artists to share and get feedback on their creations, and to make money For example in the new game Grand Theft Auto VI, a player is allowed to kill, out run cops, and steal, almost all the missions themselves are based on violence.
Video games are harmful to young children because studies show that children that play more violent video games have a higher risk of being aggressive towards others. Children do not yet understand the harm of these video games. At a young age, what children see and observe influence them There is aggression everyday and it can be seen in all different forms.
Where ever you go there will be some type of aggression. While doing research, I learned new things about psychological aggression and affects aggression has on people. The Milgram experiment can show you how psychological affects the humans nature on aggression But why are humans so aggressive in the first place. There are two sides of the debate: Nature, and Nurture. This argument applies to aggression as well. Aggression is mainly caused by things during childhood and adolescence where people learn from various sources about aggression, although, human psychology plays a slight factor This report will use SPSS program for the part of analysis.
The methodologies that this report will use are Descriptive Statistics and Multiple Regression. After calculation, analysis and interpretation of statistic will be provided. After received the database of participants, continuingly proceed with the analysis step with SPSS program In considering the violence and aggression in mental health units, the larger issue of violence and aggression in mainstream culture must not be ignored.
It has been observed that physical attack in a mental health unit setting appear to be happening more frequently while the attacks include patient-to patient and patient-to-staff aggressive behavior. First let me define what wars of aggression is. Wars of aggression, as known as the wars of invasion. It was countries or certain people who want to declare war without any specific reasons.
As people concern about their waging rate, they believe that if they start a war, things might get better, so they turn conflict into war to make things right Initially, a targeted criterion for reduction is to reduce self-aggression to 2 times per day, and person directed aggression to 8 times per day across 5 consecutive days.
Finding and understanding the solution to this question can be very beneficial to the medical field because it provides an answer to one of the common questions about steroids.
There are some articles that argue that it does not cause increased aggression and there are also other articles that argue and say that it does. After completing literature review I have concluded that steroids can cause increased aggression within the user and that further testing is required to determine anything else Not only has the video game industry become a multi-billion dollar industry, but it has attracted people from all age types.
While video games today are played by both kids and adults, there are many issues being raised regarding the effects of video games.
More particular, is the effect that violent video games may be having on children. Some critics argue that video games are direct indicators of child aggression while video game supporters argue that there is no direct link between child aggression and violent video games By saying this he is referring to the idea that species would not participate in aggressive actions if there were no results.
Aggression specifically in the wild does not come from anything that is not triggered by a motivation; every act of aggression is directed to an advantage. By saying that he is trying to tell us that he likes to focus on the true causes and existence of aggression and uses the idea of species in habitats to prove it While thousands of studies have been completed on this subject, with most of them showing a direct connection between media violence and belligerent behavior, the ensuing information will show the inadequacies of such theories by further scrutinizing these points of interest: 1.
Television Violence 2. Media Perception vs You can see this in micro aggression that some cultures have been raised on. Micro aggression are as stated in Visualizing Everyday Racism. Bullying is the act of aggression and bad behaviour that involves emotionally and physically harming other individuals.
Finding of studies by Margarate Mead, Ruth Benedict and other cultural anthropologists reveal that culture plays a vital role in producing aggressive behaviour. Though the influence of society and culture cannot be separated as they over-lap each other, studies of cultural anthropologists and social psychologists indicate the important role of culture in the increment or minimization of aggressive and violent behaviour.
Kohen has observed that lower middle class culture encourages aggression. He says the lower class individual has little or no confidence in himself and sees little point in making effort to make himself ready for better job and future success. The essence of lower class position is that it is at the mercy of the forces of higher class, i.
Tennabaum describes a street scene in a lower class locality. He says streets and sidewalks swarm with children engaged in all sorts of violent and energetic activities, shouting, screaming, fighting, laughing. The adults leaning over the walls and windows watching with the scene, occasionally shouting and scolding, indicating their approval or disapproval to the aggressive acts of their children. Sometime they also encourage their children to act more violently. This description characterizes the life, culture and style of living of lower class people.
Lower class people are always depressed, tensed and anxious for their financial constraints. So they become aggressive with slightest provocation. A comparative study of different societies as well as cultures shows that aggression develops in a society and it differ according to the variation in culture. This has been discuss in detail under development of aggression. Northern Negroes reacted with more extra punitive and less intra punitive than Northern Whites.
This may be attributed to cultural variation. Though the roots of aggression lie in the society, culture and child rearing practices, since frustration is universally also universally found, aggression is also universally found irrespective of social learning and cultural influences. Even children from happy homes provide influences with all facilities and stimulating environment also show some spontaneous aggression.
It can only be diminished, controlled and managed by controlling the socio-cultural and psychological factors conducive to aggression. Direct Provocation: Direct provocation from another person is another social factor that often plays a role in aggression.
In another incident a teacher killed the student by strangling him because the student misbehaved with her and called her a bitch. In a third incident a son aged 22 years killed his father in a kitchen knife because he did not give him Rs. In another incident a teacher asked all the 24 students of the class to give five slaps on the face of a 5th standard girl who allegedly did not do her home work.
These cases indicate that due to direct provocation, violence, assault, aggression and various other crimes take place. Verbal insults and physical actions interpreted as aggressive in nature often lead to the persons in the receiving end to reciprocate with the result that aggression and counter aggression can develop.
In a recent incident at Sundargarh in Orissa two persons wanted to buy mutton for Rs. Though the salesman repeatedly denied ro sell mutton at Rs. This produced violent quarrel between both the parties and the two youths returned without any mutton. In the evening of the same day they hatched a plan and murdered the salesman.
Courtesy; E. Thousand and thousand cases of aggression take place because of direct provocation. Economic Factors: It has been already discussed how poverty and lower income push a person from outside to commit aggression and crime. Economically disadvantaged persons being unable to provide a stimulating environment, proper facility and care to their children, expose them to a lot of frustrations.
The parents of poor families also face tremendous difficulties for making a good living. These factors independently or combined expose the children to frustrating experiences to which they react with aggression.
Economic insecurity stands on the way of their all-round development. So they indulge in violence and assault being overburdened with frustration and rage.
They blame the society for their helplessness and misfortune. They feel that they are being exploited by the higher economic groups and rebel, revolt in the long run.
But that does not mean that people from rich families with all facilities, growing up in a secured and stimulating environment do not show violence and aggression.
But in most societies, the dominant groups having more economic power are usually highly prejudiced against the minority groups. Experience and day to day news indicate that unemployed are engaged in aggression and violence, thefts to make quick money.
Prejudice: Prejudice though is a form of aggression, in a wider sense it actually facilitates aggression. Hostility in situations is often expressed as a form of prejudice. Because of prejudice, one group may disapprove the beliefs, values, actions and style of living of another person. Readily identifiable qualities of the target group like colour of the skin, poverty, backwardness, sex, strange religious practices, dress, and illiteracy, may lead to hostility towards the out group.
This may subsequently culminate into a feeling of aggression or an act of violence against the target group. Essay 6. Environmental Sources of Aggression: While research studies suggest the tremendous importance of social factors in the causation of aggressive behaviour, it also stems from the environment. Environmental factors of aggression refer to any condition or factor in the physical environment that make individuals uncomfortable like high temperature, mob or crowd behaviour, excessive noise from television or loud speakers or human beings which are unpleasant and irritating.
The negative feelings produced by such atmosphere increase aggressive motivation in various ways. During extreme heat when we feel bad and uncomfortable we get irritated and annoyed. This is a common experience. Thus disturbances in the physical environment may reinforce negative thoughts, negative emotions and increase aggressive motivation in several ways.
This feeling may lead to attribute the actions of others as hostile though they are not so. This may further lead us to think in a way that may activate our aggressive motives.
Research findings thus strongly support the role of environmental factors as a source of aggression. Essay 7. Injustice in Work Place: Frustration does play a role in aggression when individuals feel that their interests and prestige have been thwarted such interference or blocking produces frustration which has been a powerful cause of aggression.
Injustice in work place is recently found to be an important cause of aggression leading to work place violence. In violent out bursts employees attack and even kill other persons with whom they work. Instances are not rare where subordinates are found killing or murdering their seniors and boss. Recently a driver at Sambalpur was alleged to murder the land lady because she did not pay the money he wanted and tore the license of the driver.
In another incident a maid servant became violent when her land lady denied her leave to go home. The same night she planned to kill the land lady. Before leaving the kitchen in the night she kept a bowl of water on the gas stove and she switched on the gas stove and locked the room.
The land lady used to come to the kitchen in the early morning every day to heat water for her bath. Essay 8. Men and women in all cultures from the very moment of birth are perceived and treated differently. The tasks assigned to males and females vary to a great extent. They wear different dresses, play different toys and even study in different schools.
In general, society teaches women to be meek and mild, submissive, shy, tender hearted and sympathetic. Women are cared like a delicate flower, a symbol of beauty, love and tolerance.
Society teaches women to be more submissive than aggressive, to be more tender than tough. They are taught to solve situations through tolerance and sacrifice. Hence pronounced variation in intellectual and emotional development of the two sexes is expected.
There is no doubt that in almost all cultures boys receive more reward and encouragement and less punishment for aggressive behaviour than girls do.
In Indian culture if a girl or woman talks loudly, laughs loudly and even walks fast, she is criticized by the family and society for her aggressive acts. On the contrary, many parents believe that the ideal boy should be able to fight back and defend himself when attacked. He is said effeminate when he remains submissive, when not able to defend himself if attacked or scolded.
Boys are generally not made to feel guilty and anxious about aggressive behaviour as girls are. During the pre-school year therefore boys are allowed to express more aggression than girls in play and fantasy. Fighting, physical attacks, negative behaviour quarrelling lying, verbal aggression, argument, destructiveness and temper tantrum are more common among boys than among girls.
In every society while boys are allowed to express aggression to their frustrations or interference of goals, aspirations, girls are asked to tolerate their frustration or withdraw from the situation.
These sex differences in aggression become more marked as age increases. The data of one observational study shows that 2 year old boys and girls scream, hit and cry with approximately equal degree and frequency. But by the age of 4 boys do more hitting and relatively less screaming than girls do. Men and women learn to display those forms of aggression that are defined as culturally acceptable and socially accepted and to inhibit aggressive expressions that are considered less acceptable.
General sex differences are noticed in advertisement, selling. Sex differences are hinted by Terman and Miles on anger, fear, disgust and pity. For all types of emotions the responses of girls show greater affectivity. Sex differences in quarrel have been found by Green , sex differences in conflict by Jersild, Markey, Rough Sex differences in dominance and as ascendance by Allport and Bernreuter , worry by Sunne and sex differences in anxiety by this author.
With regard to social adjustment boys exceed girls and this ultimately implies the presence of considerable social aggressiveness. Sex differences in suggestibility and emotion is also found. Essay 9. Hostility and Aggression: Hostility is a form of aggression. Hostility may turn in to aggression at any time, particularly the moment it finds a scope for outlet. Social norms, standards and laws set a limit to the degree of hostility one can show to another beyond which it is not allowed.
One may express his displeasure and anguish to his subordinate employee when he comes office late. This is permitted by social norms. But if one gives a slap for this fault his hostile behaviour will not be tolerated either by society or by law. Thus, most societies tolerate hostility up to a certain degree and the norm is limited. Hostile reactions are sublimated in different forms of adventures and athletics. Hostility is also expressed very often in prejudice.
Group prejudice is actually aggravated by feelings of hostility and dis-likeness. Once a group develops prejudice towards another group, he is always in the readiness to show further aggression towards the out group. The hostility and prejudiced behaviour towards the out group or enemy is usually learnt during childhood when the child has not developed his reasoning capacity to differentiate between right and wrong, justice and injustice.
Such behaviours towards the targeted group have also social sanctions. Prejudice aggravates aggressive and social behaviour and fight between two social groups. It may also culminate in violence of any kind, any degree. Communal riots, mob behaviour, fight between two social groups, two nations, two minorities or majority groups may clearly be due to prejudice.
The killing of African Americans Blacks by the whites, the atrocities on scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and minority groups, the violence and torture against women, the harassment of high castes on the low castes and higher economic groups on the financially weaker sections of the society are examples of hostility and aggression.
Findings of several studies indicate that highly authoritative suspicions sarcastic and bitter personalities are more prone to hostility aggression and violence against members of the out group. The best combination for individuals includes participation by teachers, students, school administrators and the parents.
In our society, gang violence is prevalent in many places and continues to be one of the more violent forms of aggression. Gang violence is another generational issue that gets passed on from generation to generation. In this case, it is the lack of parental guidance that often gets one involved in gang activity. In many cases this can be due to the father or mother dying due to gang violence. There are many different factors as to why gangs are so prevalent.
As children realize that their bad behavior is not scolded, their level of guilt for misbehavior decreases. All of these variables cause low self-control and thus the impulsivity to engage in gang related actions, as many of them overlook the consequences.
Many law enforcement agencies have numerous programs that target gang violence specifically. Some programs involve trying to get the community to fight the violence head on. Some cities have found this to be an effective tool, while others have not. Although social learning theory helps to better understand aggression, it can also be used as a tool to better understand what the solutions are to address the causes of aggression and violent behaviors.
Media violence and malicious behaviors from a role model cause aggressive behaviors and violence in children and adults, but it has also been shown that positive social behaviors have a constructive impact.
Many studies have been performed in the efforts of showing that social learning theory can be applied to learning positive behaviors, in the very same way that Bandura applied it to prove how aggressive behaviors are learned and modeled.
In one variation of the Bobo doll experiment, a group of children from a lower socioeconomic status were shown the television show Mister Rogers over a period of time.
The experimenters observed that the children who watched the show began to imitate the behaviors in the show. In another experiment, two episodes of the show Lassie were shown to two different groups of first graders. In the other, a non-endangering episode of Lassie was shown. As a control, another group of children were shown the Brady Bunch.
After they were shown the video, they were tested by having to choose between telling an adult that an animal was in danger or having the option of earning a reward.
Through aggressive behaviour or displacement of the same frustration is released. The terrorist activity has also increased unimaginably throughout the world. As another form of aggression, bullying is often learned through their aggressive peers. Although testosterone levels are much higher in men than in women, the relationship between testosterone and aggression is not limited to males. Gibson, K.
Secondly interpersonal violence without having any social sanction and not being accepted by human values and traditions creates strong sense of guilty and anxiety in the aggressive activity.
A multilevel analysis. References Abbey, A. Bushman, B.
There are two sides of the debate: Nature, and Nurture.
Aggression also occurs when an individual is dethroned from a dominant role with its accompanying frustrations, insecurity and feeling of inferiority. War among nations, conflicts among groups of people is examples of intergroup aggression.