Study guide For a printer-friendly PDF version of this guide, click here This brief study guide aims to help you to understand why you should include references to the information sources that you use to underpin your writing. It explains the writing scholarship essay examples
principles of accurately referencing such sources in your work. Other useful guides: Effective note makingAvoiding plagiarism. Why reference?
Chapter 1 discusses the ethical concerns associated with source citation as you write personal essays how "Student Writing and Ethics" section. To include the more practical problem essays citation mechanics, 5th grade essay writing practice
to address common mechanics challenges: In the simplest terms, how two basic citation styles appropriate for personal essays can be referred to as the number system and include system. When you use a references section at the end you an essay, provide full bibliographic information for your sources—e. Because the mechanics of citation vary slightly from one journal to the next, most writers model their references page on references of a respected write in their field. For convenience in a personal essay, it is acceptable to cite sources—especially if you use just you
or write numbered references form at the bottom of the page.
You might also search for professionals who have strong opinions on the matter and quote them in your paper. Accessed March 16 These can serve as appropriate references for research reports and term papers. Landranger series, Sheet , , London. Separate the entries with a blank line.
Citing your source within the text As the name suggests, the citation in the text normally includes the name s surname only of the author s and the date of the publication. Images, illustrations, maps etc. Electronic style: A guide to citing electronic information. Use the heading references for your references. Full details of the source are then given in a reference list or bibliography at the end of the text. Examples: Arendt, J.
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Term Paper: Format of Citations and References 1. Introduction As you write your term papers, it will be important for you to document where you obtained the information cited in your report. Many of the references you use will come from published sources. Some may come from electronic sources such as the World Wide Web, Melvyl and Harvest databases available through the UC Davis library, CD references and the like, and some may come from interviews.
Before you write
In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book. London: Edward Arnold 4. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve.
Using Sources As you gather references, it is important to use reliable sources that directly back up your main point. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics capitalized , the date, and finally the page where the article was found. For example: Burt, S.
How to write correct references
There are many good referencing guides for Harvard styles since it is one of the most used, and some are given in the section on recommended books, websites etc. However although all are Harvard styles, they do differ in details. Articles References to all different kinds of scholarly articles, i.
You can use them for explanatory text, but not for references. Do not number the references. The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: Weber, , cited in Hamilton, Other types of publications The three examples above cover the most common publication types. For example: Burt, R.
The general form of citations in the body of the text is to include the author and date in parentheses as above and optionally include the page number s after the date. Polar Biol. The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e.
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If the same source needs to be referred to several times, on second or subsequent occasions, a shortened reference may be used. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book.
Westport, CT: Mecklermedia. Thoits, P. The reference above includes: the surnames and forenames or initials of both the authors; the date of publication; the place of publication; the name of the publisher. For example: Burt, S. The publisher and place of publication are not normally required for journals.