In a block quote, which is used when a large quote, of 4 lines or more, is added into a project. Using footnotes and endnotes: The Modern Language Association generally promotes the use of references as described in the sections above, but footnotes and endnotes are also acceptable forms of references to use in your paper. Footnotes and endnotes are helpful to use in a variety of circumstances.
Here are a few scenarios when it may seem appropriate to use this type of referencing: When you are referring to a number of various sources, by various authors, in a section of your paper. In this situation, it is a good idea to use a footnote or endnote to share information for parenthetical references.
This will encourage the reader to stay focused on the text of the research paper, instead of having to read through all of the reference information. These types of footnotes and endnotes are helpful when explaining translations, adding background information, or sharing counterexamples to research. To include a footnote or endnote, add a superscript number at the end of the sentence the footnote or endnote refers to.
They can be included mid-sentence if necessary, but be sure to add it after any punctuation, such as commas or periods. On the last page of the assignment, the writer includes the full references for the books by Isadora, Parr, and Velazquez.
Need further help with quotes or MLA format examples? Learn more about the style in the news. Paraphrases Paraphrases are created when text or speech from another source are added into a project, but the writer chooses to summarize them and weave in his or her own writing and writing style.
Even though the writer modifies the information from another source, it is still necessary to credit the source using proper MLA format. Paraphrased information uses the same MLA reference format as stated in the section directly above this one. Stay foolish. They should never be simply satisfied with the status quo. They should continue to push themselves despite possible obstacles and failures. To develop a well-written paraphrase, follow these simple, step-by-step instructions.
Read the text carefully and make sure you fully comprehend its meaning. A writer can only develop a well-written paraphrase if the information has been fully grasped and understood. After analyzing and completely understanding the original text, put it to the side.
Do not simply substitute words in the original text with synonyms. Show off and demonstrate your ability to process the original information, connect it to the content in your paper, and write it in your own individual and unique writing style. Include an in-text reference next to the paraphrase. All paraphrases include references, similar to direct quotes.
See section 6 of this guide to learn how to properly attribute your paraphrased information. Give yourself a pat on the back! Paraphrasing is an important part of the research and writing process. An essential part of the research process involves adding direct quotes and paraphrases into projects. When it comes to paraphrases, writers are able to take a block of text and shrink the scope of it into the their papers.
Paper writers can also use paraphrases to demonstrate their ability to analyze and reiterate information in a meaningful and relevant way. Paraphrases come out on top. The ultimate goal of a research project is to have your voice and research merged together as one. Paraphrases allow just that. Jones - 2 Center the title of your essay on the line below the date. Use italics to emphasize any titles of longer works that you are referencing.
If you have sections, then you should use numbers followed by a period in order to divide them accordingly. For example, if you had three sections that you were going to discuss within your essay you would number them like so, "1. Section One, 2. Section Two, 3. Section 3" and so forth. After each number be sure to space once prior to typing in the section name. Works Cited MLA style references a bibliography as a works cited page. When typing up your works cited page there are a few things that you should do.
Depending on how many sources you have and the type of sources that you used whether a book, article, or Internet-based source , then you will want to pay special attention to the author's name, title of the book, publication date, publisher and place of publication. Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations five spaces so that you create a hanging indent.
List page numbers of sources efficiently, when needed. If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages through , list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as Writers are no longer required to provide URLs for Web entries. However, if your instructor or publisher insists on them, include them in angle brackets after the entry and end with a period. For long URLs, break lines only at slashes. You do not need to provide subscription information in addition to the database name.
Capitalization and Punctuation Capitalize each word in the titles of articles, books, etc, but do not capitalize articles the, an , prepositions, or conjunctions unless one is the first word of the title or subtitle: Gone with the Wind, The Art of War, There Is Nothing Left to Lose. Author names are written last name first; middle names or middle initials follow the first name: Burke, Kenneth Levy, David M. Wallace, David Foster Do not list titles Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. A Grammar of Motives.
A Rhetoric of Motives. The Education of an E-Designer. Heller, Steven and Karen Pomeroy. Design Literacy: Understanding Graphic Design. Work with No Known Author Alphabetize works with no known author by their title; use a shortened version of the title in the parenthetical citations in your paper.
Simulacra and Simulations. The basic form for a book citation is: Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication. Book with One Author Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Penguin, Henley, Patricia.
The Hummingbird House. Denver: MacMurray, Book with More Than One Author The first given name appears in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in first name last name format. Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. Boston: Allyn, If there are more than three authors, you may choose to list only the first author followed by the phrase et al.
Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Selfe, and Geoffrey Sirc. Remember to ignore articles like A, An, and The. For each subsequent entry by the same author, use three hyphens and a period. Palmer, William J.
Dickens and New Historicism. New York: St. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, Book by a Corporate Author or Organization A corporate author may include a commission, a committee, or a group that does not identify individual members on the title page. American Allergy Association.
Allergies in Children. New York: Random, Book with No Author List by title of the book. Incorporate these entries alphabetically just as you would with works that include an author name. For example, the following entry might appear between entries of works written by Dean, Shaun and Forsythe, Jonathan. Encyclopedia of Indiana. New York: Somerset, Remember that for an in-text parenthetical citation of a book with no author, provide the name of the work in the signal phrase and the page number in parentheses.
You may also use a shortened version of the title of the book accompanied by the page number. A Translated Book Cite as you would any other book. Foucault, Michel. Richard Howard. New York: Vintage-Random House, Republished Book Books may be republished due to popularity without becoming a new edition.
New editions are typically revisions of the original work. For books that originally appeared at an earlier date and that have been republished at a later one, insert the original publication date before the publication information.
For books that are new editions i. Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge, Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine. New York: Perennial-Harper, An Edition of a Book There are two types of editions in book publishing: a book that has been published more than once in different editions and a book that is prepared by someone other than the author typically an editor. A Subsequent Edition Cite the book as you normally would, but add the number of the edition after the title.
Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. A Work Prepared by an Editor Cite the book as you normally would, but add the editor after the title. Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Margaret Smith.
Oxford: Oxford UP, Anthology or Collection e. This sort of entry is somewhat rare. If you are citing a particular piece within an anthology or collection more common , see A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection below. Hill, Charles A. Defining Visual Rhetorics.
Peterson, Nancy J. Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection Works may include an essay in an edited collection or anthology, or a chapter of a book. The basic form is for this sort of citation is as follows: Lastname, First name.
Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page range of entry. Some examples: Harris, Muriel. Ben Rafoth. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, Swanson, Gunnar. Steven Heller. New York: Allworth Press, Note on Cross-referencing Several Items from One Anthology: If you cite more than one essay from the same edited collection, MLA indicates you may cross-reference within your works cited list in order to avoid writing out the publishing information for each separate essay.
You should consider this option if you have several references from a single text. The Writing Program Administrator as Researcher. Peeples, Tim. Philip Smith. New York: Dover, Kincaid, Jamaica.
Tobias Wolff. New York: Vintage, Carter, Angela. Article in a Reference Book e. Encyclopedias, Dictionaries For entries in encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other reference works, cite the piece as you would any other work in a collection but do not include the publisher information. Also, if the reference book is organized alphabetically, as most are, do not list the volume or the page number of the article or item.
Institutio Oratoria. Cambridge: Loeb-Harvard UP, When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes in the work. Also, be sure in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number s. See Citing Multivolume Works on the In-Text Citations — The Basics page, which you can access by following the appropriate link at the bottom of this page.
If the volume you are using has its own title, cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication. Churchill, Winston S. The Age of Revolution.
By Farrell. Klaus Kinski. Follow with the date of publication. Hill, Charles A. You should consider this option if you have several references from a single text. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks.
Note: the instructions in this link follow the 7th edition of the Handbook.
Citing Non-Print or Sources from the Internet With more and more scholarly work being posted on the Internet, you may have to cite research you have completed in virtual environments.
Before doing so, be sure to click "Format" and then "Paragraph" on the menu bar and check your paragraph format to make sure that the first line of the paragraph is not indented.
Give the source of the table and any notes immediately below the table in a caption. Try looking in the settings area where page numbers or headers can be added or modified. Works Cited MLA style references a bibliography as a works cited page. From the MLA Handbook, 8th ed. AAT Ann Arbor: UMI,
If you are not already viewing from the Home tab, click the Home tab on the ribbon: From the Home tab, look in the Paragraph group, and click the Line Spacing icon and then click the line spacing that you desire for the selected text. Remember that your in-text parenthetical citation should include the name of the specific edition of the Bible, followed by an abbreviation of the book, the chapter and verse s. Type the title of your paper, capitalizing the first word and all major words and proper nouns. Type Works Cited do not underline, boldface, italicize, or enclose the title in quotation marks. A Pamphlet Cite the title and publication information for the pamphlet just as you would a book without an author. Press the Enter key once to begin a new line your line spacing is already set at double.
Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches.
From its birth in the late nineteenth century, progressive education has wrestled with the conflict within industrail society between pressure to increase specialization of knowledge and of professional work upholding disciplinary standards and pressure to integrate more fully an ever-widerning number of citizes into intellectually meaningful activity within mass society promoting social equity. Republished Book Books may be republished due to popularity without becoming a new edition. Langhamer, Claire. Type the works cited page. An Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword When citing an introduction, a preface, a foreword, or an afterword, write the name of the author s of the piece you are citing. Use n.
Learn more about the style in the news. Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. Case, Sue-Ellen. It is always a good idea to maintain personal copies of electronic information, when possible. Footnotes below the text body In the case that you need to format footnotes on the same page as the main text, begin footnotes four lines two double-spaced lines below the main text.
Web entries should follow a similar format. Disadvantages of writing essays exist only if you write an essay that lacks logic and proper organization. Footnotes are single-space with a hanging indent. Churchill, Winston S. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author. Your writing program will probably allow you to create a running head of this kind that appears automatically on every page.