Long quotations For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay. For example, when citing more than four lines of prose, use the following examples: Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow.
By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. Whenever you endeavor to call upon only a portion of the writing from the secondary source, it is best to utilize the most relevant segment that creates a strong comment about the quote being used indirectly.
It is in good practice to remember to properly introduce the secondary source, prior to using the quote.
For example, you might choose to write: According to Myles McLeish, author of A journey through the psyche of the broken man. Secondary quotes are identified differently than standard passages. When following APA citation guidelines, you will include the publication year after the name of the writer.
The page number will come after the quote. Under the MLA citation guidelines, you will add the page number after the name of the author. Do not forget to include the entry into your reference list. In the event that you are using indirect quotes, you need only to list the secondary source on your reference list. For example, under MLA Modern Language Association citation style, you will cite the full name of the writer and also the page number every time you include a quote in your essay.
If you were instead using APA style, you would also have to include the year that the quote was written — in the body of the essay — and again in the corresponding reference page. Citing shorter quotes: Adhering to MLA style guidelines, a short quote is defined as anything that is smaller in length four typed lines. If the quote you are incorporating into your work meets that requirement, you will a. It is acceptable to input the name of the author either before the quote, or in parentheses at the conclusion of the quote.
The page number will be written at the end, there is no need to use anything to signify that it is a page number. The following offers just one way of introducing the above quotation: The ancient Greeks never saw a need to justify wars that were waged outside the walls of the city state. Since the quotation is relatively short, the brief introduction works. You could, however, strengthen your analysis by demonstrating the significance of the passage within your own argument.
Introducing your quotation with a full sentence would help you assert greater control over the material: The ancient Greeks never saw a need to justify wars that were waged outside the walls of the city state. In these two examples, observe the forms of punctuation used to introduce the quotations. When you introduce a quotation with a full sentence, you should always place a colon at the end of the introductory sentence.
When you introduce a quotation with an incomplete sentence, you usually place a comma after the introductory phrase. Finally, note that you can deviate from the common pattern of introduction followed by quotation. If you are quoting a passage that contains a quotation, then you use single quotation marks for the internal quotation. Quite rarely, you quote a passage that has a quotation within a quotation.
In that rare instance, you would use double quotation marks for the second internal quotation. When do I use those three dots. Whenever you want to leave out material from within a quotation, you need to use an ellipsis, which is a series of three periods, each of which should be preceded and followed by a space.
So, an ellipsis in this sentence would look like. For example, if you take material from the end of a sentence, keep the period in as usual. Even though they were out of breath, they made it on time. Sometimes it is necessary for clarity and flow to alter a word or words within a quotation.
You should make such changes rarely. Here are a few examples of situations when you might need brackets: Changing verb tense or pronouns in order to be consistent with the rest of the sentence.
Including supplemental information that your reader needs in order to understand the quotation. In rare situations, you may quote from a text that has nonstandard grammar, spelling, or word choice. Using [sic] alerts your reader to the fact that this nonstandard language is not the result of a typo on your part. There is no need to put a period at the end. Do not overuse brackets! For example, it is not necessary to bracket capitalization changes that you make at the beginning of sentences.
Works consulted We consulted these works while writing the original version of this handout. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial.
Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. Simply click the button to get help! The main exception to this rule involves the use of internal citations, which always precede the last period of the sentence. For example, you might choose to write: According to Myles McLeish, author of A journey through the psyche of the broken man.
From its birth in the late nineteenth century, progressive education has wrestled with the conflict within industrial society between pressure to increase specialization of knowledge and of professional work upholding disciplinary standards and pressure to integrate more fully an ever-widerning number of citizens into intellectually meaningful activity within mass society promoting social equity. Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states, "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" Live Support How to start an essay with a quote Writing the perfect introduction for an essay is often the most arduous part involved in creating an essay.
Take a look at the following examples: The student wrote that the U. Your reader still needs your assessment of why the quotation holds significance for your paper. Works consulted We consulted these works while writing the original version of this handout.
Adams clearly appreciated religion, even if he often questioned its promotion. Secondary quotes are identified differently than standard passages. Please note that all pages in MLA should be double-spaced. You can also use your introduction to introduce the author in place of using their name in parentheses at the end. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.