Instead of using only descriptive text for your scholarly article, consider other visual ways and representations that improve the academic writing of your research paper. Figures, tables and graphs are useful methods for gathering a great deal of information into one place that can then be mentioned in the content of your article. If any research question or hypothesis is confirmed by your data and analysis, you can point to a table or figure that illustrates your finding.
When you present tables or figures in your results section, make sure to describe at least some of the data included in these visual representations so that readers can clearly understand how the table works and what interpretations can be concluded from them. You can also use appendices if you have many other helpful figures or tables that cannot be fully included in the text of your academic article.
Presenting Research Findings and Statistical Significance A systematic description of your research results and a correct data analysis and interpretation are related to statistical significance, as they help avoid speculations or misinterpretations by readers of your academic article. A short paragraph that concludes the results section by synthesizing the key findings of the study.
Highlight the most important findings you want readers to remember as they transition into the discussion section. This is particularly important if, for example, there are many results to report, the findings are complicated or unanticipated, or they are impactful or actionable in some way [i.
Reference to findings should always be described as having already happened because the method of gathering data has been completed. Problems to Avoid When writing the results section, avoid doing the following: Discussing or interpreting your results. Save this for the next section of your paper, although where appropriate, you should compare or contrast specific results to those found in other studies [e.
Reporting background information or attempting to explain your findings. This should have been done in your introduction section, but don't panic! Often the results of a study point to the need for additional background information or to explain the topic further, so don't think you did something wrong. Revise your introduction as needed. Ignoring negative results. If some of your results fail to support your hypothesis, do not ignore them.
Document them and then state in your discussion section why you believe a negative result emerged from your study. Note that negative results, and how you handle them, offer you the opportunity to write a more engaging discussion section, therefore, don't be hesitant to highlight them. Including raw data or intermediate calculations.
Ask your professor if you need to include any raw data generated by your study, such as transcripts from interviews or data files. If raw data is to be included, place it in an appendix or set of appendices that are referred to in the text. Revise your introduction as needed. Ignoring negative results. If some of your results fail to support your hypothesis, do not ignore them.
Document them, then state in your discussion section why you believe a negative result emerged from your study. Note that negative results, and how you handle them, often provides you with the opportunity to write a more engaging discussion section, therefore, don't be afraid to highlight them. Including raw data or intermediate calculations.
Ask your professor if you need to include any raw data generated by your study, such as transcripts from interviews or data files. If raw data is to be included, place it in an appendix or set of appendices that are referred to in the text. Be as factual and concise as possible in reporting your findings. Do not use phrases that are vague or non-specific, such as, "appeared to be greater or lesser than If you feel the need to highlight something, you will have a chance to do that in the discussion section.
Confusing figures with tables. Be sure to properly label any non-textual elements in your paper. If you are not sure, look up the term in a dictionary. While your study might not have supported your original predictions, your finding can provide important inspiration for future explorations into a topic. You might not have supported your hypothesis, but your findings may help you develop another hypothesis to explore in future studies. Summarize Your Results Do not include the raw data in the results section.
Remember, you are summarizing the results, not reporting them in full detail. The results section should be a relatively brief overview of your findings, not a complete presentation of every single number and calculation. If you choose, you can create a supplemental online archive where other researchers can access the raw data if they choose to do so. Include Tables and Figures Your results section should include both text and illustrations.
Presenting data in this way makes it easier for readers to quickly look at your results. Structure your results section around tables or figures that summarize the results of your statistical analysis. Include the date s of the study e.
It is often a good idea to include a map labeled as a Figure showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area. Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area.
NOTE: For laboratory studies you need not report the date and location of the study UNLESS it is necessary information for someone to have who might wish to repeat your work or use the same facility. Most often it is not. If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility.
Top of Page Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls, treatments, variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured, what form the data take, etc. Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number e. When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment.
A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses.
The results section is only for the results of the research. Step 4: Draft your Results section using the findings and figures you have organized.
After all, if you talk about something that happened in the past or that happened to someone, you will need to use words like "was" and "had. Document them and then state in your discussion section why you believe a negative result emerged from your study. Both approaches are appropriate in how you report your findings, but choose only one format to use. If not, go back and fix it. Do not use phrases that are vague or non-specific, such as, "appeared to be greater than other variables A related sequence of actions can be combined into one sentence to improve clarity and readability: Problematic Example: This is a very long and wordy description of a common, simple procedure.
The page length of this section is set by the amount and types of data to be reported. A reader may well expect the following sentence to be about the invaders. Structure and Writing Style I. Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings. Bates College; Schafer, Mickey S. Do not confuse observations with interpretations; observations in this context refers to highlighting important findings you discovered through a process of reviewing prior literature and gathering data.