Learn how and when to remove this template message Lilliput and Blefuscu were intended as, and understood to be, satirical portraits of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of France , respectively, as they were in the early 18th century. The Tories are parodied as the Tramecksan or "High-Heels" due to their adhesion to the high church party of the Church of England , and their exalted views of royal supremacy , while the Whigs are represented as the Slamecksan or "Low-Heels" the Whigs inclined toward low church views, and believed in parliamentary supremacy.
These issues, generally considered to be of fundamental importance to the constitution of Great Britain , are reduced by Swift to a difference in fashions. Traditionally, Lilliputians broke boiled eggs on the larger end; a few generations ago, an Emperor of Lilliput, the Present Emperor's great-grandfather, had decreed that all eggs be broken on the smaller end after his son cut himself breaking the egg on the larger end.
The differences between Big-Endians those who broke their eggs at the larger end and Little-Endians had given rise to "six rebellions The Lilliputian religion says an egg should be broken on the convenient end, which is now interpreted by the Lilliputians as the smaller end. The Big-Endians gained favour in Blefuscu. At the same time, revolution and reform in Scotland had also converted that country to Presbyterian Protestantism, which led to fresh difficulties when England and Scotland were united under one ruler, James I — Some of these conflicts were between Protestants and Catholics; others were between different branches of Protestantism.
Lilliputians were peculiar in the way they wrote the scripts, slanting from one corner of the paper to the other as ladies did in England and they buried their dead upside down. Swift was mocking the so-called polished English women and the English beliefs. These were corruptions in the original institutions brought about by the party leaders. Lilliput was revealed to have degenerated from an almost Utopian state to its present.
Swift was very clearly indicating towards the reprehensibility of a country that allowed itself to abandon its brave accomplishments and noble traditions to strife and dispute. Party and faction quarreled and bickered. Swift undoubtedly reflected England while he was talking about the civil conflicts in Lilliput.
Swift was lamenting the corruption in the English institutions of politics, religion and society in general. Chowdhury 12 beyond decency and cleanliness p. Most importantly, no one had questioned the identification of Flimnap and Walpole, the references to the Big-Endians and Little-Endians, the high-heels and the low-heels according to J.
Swift used them to show the extent of repugnant that anyone could be. Dishonesty, intrigue and character defamation made the way of the world in Lilliput. Bertrand A. Landa, ed. Chowdhury 13 but his side strokes at Walpole, at the French wars, at the divisions of party and of sect, are occasional only, and not systematic. Downie 9, commented on the ridicule of Whig ministers and the defense of a former administration, cleared of all charges as long before as which modern historians had discovered in the voyage to Lilliput, Swift was sufficiently courageous and skillful to describe the court of King George II in a genuine allegory more scathing than anything yet discovered in the voyage to Lilliput.
The Lilliputians felt that blinding and starvation were a more humane punishment for Gulliver than outright death. Gulliver did not agree with this, though he could not see the implications of the Lilliputians, who were themselves virtually blind to logic, reason, justice and gratitude. Chowdhury 14 skeleton as a monument of admiration and posterity p. Christ-like, Gulliver remained good for evil, merely removing himself from the threatening situation by setting out for Blefuscu.
Gulliver became thoroughly wary of princes, ministers and all political institutions. He realized that governments were corrupt by party antagonisms, the rivalries of factions, and wicked intriguing. Human behavior was often motivated by jealousy, vanity, lust and ingratitude. The innocent and friendly Gulliver could not retain his curiosity and restless nature; neither his affectionate love, nor trust in his fellow creatures. Chowdhury 15 Chapter 2: A Voyage to Brobdingnag The Adventure sailed for Surat in June of and the violent monsoon drove the ship off course to an unknown land.
Gulliver wandered apart from the others of the ship where he was captured by a huge giant farmer. Swift had reversed the previous scenario now of the earlier view of human nature. Gulliver had a hard time convincing his giant captors that he was not a nasty, vicious little beast. He reflected sadly that even the most beautiful fair skin of English women would be odious if viewed through a magnifying glass.
He realized that he himself must have appeared shocking and monstrous to the Lilliputians. Swift was pointing out that human worth can be viewed from different perspectives in an increased or diminished manner. Swift began, then, his exploration of social possibilities by representing the very real, very possible world.
His doing this made reasonable his choice of a size difference to distinguish his hero. He was not strikingly different from them in his psychology, intellectual powers or physical configuration. As he was dwarf-like in Brobdingnag, his feelings of fear and insecurity would and made a kind of detached, elevated, satiric view of an ordinary world that Swift presented Chowdhury 16 in Part I.
Making Gulliver small and insecure and the Brobdingnagians large and wise gave direction to the theme of varied knowledge and gaze. In contrast, the modern technology that Gulliver had mastered was deflated. His microscopic vision, paralleling the use of microscopes in Europe, and unnaturally fine for the lands of the giants, it only emphasized and exaggerated the ugliness.
The art of sailing and navigation were often brought forward by the moderns as evidence of superiority to the ancients. The giants were not seafarers but Gulliver was and this art was ironically displayed when Gulliver rowed and sailed his little vessel in a trough. Gulliver began to accept and admire much of the wisdom of the giants.
Gulliver rejected the morals of the sacred book of the giants, which taught, like the Bible, that man was mean and contemptible and full of pride. Those who were not powerful could not command respect and they would be subjected, no matter what their intrinsic worth, to urge and misjudge the powerful.
The complicated factor on the political psychology was the religious matter and support of the Church of England. There were several different types of Brobdingnagians — the trustworthy and loving Glumdaclitch, her shrewd and exploiting father, the mischievous school-boy and the curious, gawking crowds that came to see Gulliver.
The Brobdingnagians were interestingly similar to humans, despite their size and the same virtues and vices as accustomed by humans. Gulliver was shown to the visitors in exchange for money on the Market Day.
He was now able to recognize the contemptibility of human folly. Swift, through Gulliver, showed how all the human beings were insecure beings or animals vainly striving for attention and protection from the more powerful ones.
Chowdhury 18 Swift indulged his delight in fantasy and described the geography, customs and economy of the Brobdingnagians, in order to further reinforce the enormous dimensional differences between the Brobdingnagians and Gulliver. A comparison between the tower of the chief temple with Salisbury Cathedral steeple was also given. Swift angrily spoke about the very human reluctance to believe one another without proof. Even the bird did not take him seriously.
His injured pride provoked and prompted him to do peculiar and pitiful things; such as jumping manure piles. It was the fact that they ignored him as a man that wounded him most deeply. Create a customized list of historical allusions for Gulliver's Travels. One simple way to create the task is to compile a list of all the names identified in footnotes or glossed in sidebars in your text. For these, students will already have the basic identification information on the historical reference.
Gulliver tries to convince the King of Brobdingnag that European government, society, and history, are in fact the exact opposite of how they are actually portrayed, however the King let Gulliver know he disagrees. I cannot but conclude the Bulk of your Natives to be the most pernicious Race of little odious Vermin that Nature ever suffered to crawl upon the Surface of the Earth. The Houyhnhnms and Yahoos were used as objects of satire Case Swift uses the Yahoos as an example that humans are more easily identified by vice than virtue.
The behavior of the Yahoo brutes that inhabit Houyhnhnm Land is decadent and irrational, therefore identified as vice.
Through their behavior, Swift shows that most of them have parallels in the life of civilized humans. On the other hand, the Houyhnhnms seem to represent virtue and all the perfections that humans seek, but reflect human faults through the inconsistencies in their behavior.
The reference to the grandfather of the present emperor, who cut his finger breaking an egg, is to Henry VIII. Henry broke with Rome over the question of papal authority and also over the matter of Anne Boleyn.
The emperor who lost his life is Charles I. Charles supported Archbishop Laud and was accused of Roman Catholic sympathies. The emperor who lost his crown is James II, who tried to restore some of the rights of the Roman church. He also attempted to institute a standing army with Roman Catholic officers.
Swift was criticizing England for fostering vast inequalities of wealth, which resulted in the follies of luxurious living. Though, they could never sink to the depths of human misery and wretchedness, they never could soar to the human heights of joy and exaltation. Christ-like, Gulliver remained good for evil, merely removing himself from the threatening situation by setting out for Blefuscu. Chowdhury 13 but his side strokes at Walpole, at the French wars, at the divisions of party and of sect, are occasional only, and not systematic.
A key element of Horatian satire is that the audience is also laughing at themselves as well as at the subject of mockery. Swift believed to distrust princes and ministers. Swift, Jonathan. Gulliver went mad at last because he failed to realize that men could never be Houyhnhnms. Swift, through Gulliver, showed how all the human beings were insecure beings or animals vainly striving for attention and protection from the more powerful ones.
Swift emulates the political scene of his life, with the political scene of Lilliput. He added that reason was intimately linked with justice and in each; the institutional injustice of the contemporary society was pointedly satirized through comparison with justice of an imaginary and rational society. Horatian satire gently mocks, Juvenalian aims to destroy and to provoke; and Menippean spreads its internal attacks at a wide number of targets.
Lilliputians were peculiar in the way they wrote the scripts, slanting from one corner of the paper to the other as ladies did in England and they buried their dead upside down. Gulliver considered them as his masters. Louis,
Perhaps inspired by Johannes Kepler and quoting Kepler's third law , Swift's satire Gulliver's Travels refers to two moons in Part 3, Chapter 3 the "Voyage to Laputa " , in which the astronomers of Laputa are described as having discovered two satellites of Mars orbiting at distances of 3 and 5 Martian diameters, and periods of 10 and Gulliver escaped and returned home. Swift also uses Gulliver's matter-of-fact tone to ridicule the religious war. The Anglicans receive communion by bread and wine; the Roman Catholics receive only bread. Swift gave an ironic twist by showing Gulliver still reluctantly inhabited his native land, still inveighing bitterly against the sin of pride, and still hopelessly unaware that he was as guilty as those he scorned.
As he was dwarf-like in Brobdingnag, his feelings of fear and insecurity would and made a kind of detached, elevated, satiric view of an ordinary world that Swift presented Chowdhury 16 in Part I. The behavior of the Yahoo brutes that inhabit Houyhnhnm Land is decadent and irrational, therefore identified as vice.