Present some details about the problem. Write Literature Review and use these words as a subtitle. Bold and centre this subtitle just like any subtitles in a paper.
In the Methodology section, explain the methods used for data collection and data analysis. Write the Results section, summarizing the key findings. Display data using graphs and charts. In the Discussion section, analyze research results and interpret them.
Draw conclusions and outline steps for future studies. Also, you have to divide them into sections. In APA format, there are 5 levels of headings which differ in size and purpose and allow writers to avoid complex numbering system. The References Page appears at the end. It provides a list of all sources cited or paraphrased in a project. Sources in the reference list should be organized in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author of every source and double-spaced.
Start the first line of each source flush left and indent all additional lines use hanging indentation. Include all sources that were mentioned. The way each reference is organized depends on the type of the source. Method labeled, centered, bold The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision.
Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. Note that in some studies e. Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. How were the participants recruited? Were they compensated for their time in any way?
Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. Materials labeled, flush left, bold Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth.
If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was e. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here.
Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. Procedure labeled, flush left, bold What did participants do, and in what order?
When you list a control variable e. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Results labeled, centered, bold In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found.
If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. Report exact p values to two or three decimal places e. However, for p-values less than. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding s in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis e.
As for the technical requirements, the abstract page starts with the word "Abstract" centered to the page and typed in a 12pt Times New Roman font. The abstract page helps your paper be found in searches and gives the reader a brief overview of what is contained within the paper. Body The APA style adheres to the long established rules of using essay-form while writing research work.
The beginning of the body once again starts with the name of the survey, which must not be bold, underlined, or italicized. To clearly identify each section, the APA standard advises centering the heading of each paragraph in a bold font. The style uses an in-text citation as well. This information has to be the same as in the reference list. Formatting of the reference list, or bibliography, is represented in the following manner.
Try organizing your information into a chart or table. Pie charts, bar graphs, coordinate planes, and line graphs are just a few ways to show numerical data, relationships between numbers, and many other types of information. Instead of typing out long, drawn out descriptions, create a drawing or image.
Many visual learners would appreciate the ability to look at an image to make sense of information. The first graphic, labeled as 1, should be the first one mentioned in the text.
Follow them in the appropriate numerical order in which they appear in the text of your paper. Example: Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3. Only use graphics if they will supplement the material in your text. If they reinstate what you already have in your text, then it is not necessary to include a graphic. Include enough wording in the graphic so that the reader is able to understand its meaning, even if it is isolated from the corresponding text.
However, do not go overboard with adding a ton of wording in your graphic. Tables: Is there anything better than seeing a neatly organized data table? We think not! If you have tons of numbers or data to share, consider creating a table instead of typing out a wordy paragraph. Tables are pretty easy to whip up on Google Docs or Microsoft Word. Here are a few pointers to keep in mind: Choose to type out your data OR create a table.
Choose one or the other. If you choose to create a table, discuss it very briefly in the text. Table 1 is the first table discussed in the paper. Table 2 is the next table mentioned, and so on. A title.
Create a brief, descriptive title. Capitalize the first letter for each important word. Italicize the title. Only use horizontal lines. Keep the font at point size and use single or double spacing. If you use single spacing in one table, make sure all of the others use single spaces as well. Keep it consistent. If you need to further explain something, or include an APA format citation, place it in a note below the table. Scroll down and look at the additional tables in the essay in APA format example found below.
Figures: Figures represent information in a visual way. They differ from tables in that they are visually appealing.
.Be direct, clear, and professional. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript. The References Page appears at the end. Most scientific papers follow this format: Start with the Running head. You can use it as a model for learning the intricacies of APA style and of creating your own projects. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis.
Journal article example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. What are the major paper sections? Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. They should be centred on the page and double-spaced.
On the assumption of the name of the organization American Psychological Association , it is not hard to guess, that this standard is mostly popular in North America, but also is widely used in other English-speaking countries. Sample of an APA format title page: 5.