Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8th ed. The 8th edition of the MLA handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices.
Essentially, a writer will need to take note of primary elements in every source, such as author, title, etc. Thus, by using this methodology, a writer will be able to source a specific item that may not be included in this list. Remember these changes from previous editions: Commas are used instead of periods between Publisher, Publication Date, and Pagination. Medium is no longer necessary. Containers are now a part of the MLA process. Periods should be used between Containers. Title of container self contained if book , Other contributors translators or editors , Version edition , Number vol.
The basic form for a book citation is: Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date. Book with One Author Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. Penguin, Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, Book with More Than One Author When a book has multiple authors, order the authors in the same way they are presented in the book.
The first given name appears in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in first name last name format. Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner.
Allyn and Bacon, If there are three or more authors, list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. Latin for "and others" in place of the subsequent authors' names. Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Utah State UP, Remember to ignore articles like A, An, and The. For each subsequent entry by the same author, use three hyphens and a period. Palmer, William J. If the source is part of a larger work, such as an essay, chapter, short story, or poem, place the title in quotation marks, making sure to put a period at the end of the title.
Follow it with the title of the larger work, in italics, with a comma at the end. The full citation might look like this: Langer, A. The italicised title of the periodical follows, along with a comma. The full citation might look like this: Barack, Lauren. The title of the series follows in italics, along with a comma. This is an example of a proper MLA style citation in the body of a project.
In a block quote, which is used when a large quote, of 4 lines or more, is added into a project. Using footnotes and endnotes: The Modern Language Association generally promotes the use of references as described in the sections above, but footnotes and endnotes are also acceptable forms of references to use in your paper.
Footnotes and endnotes are helpful to use in a variety of circumstances. Here are a few scenarios when it may seem appropriate to use this type of referencing: When you are referring to a number of various sources, by various authors, in a section of your paper. In this situation, it is a good idea to use a footnote or endnote to share information for parenthetical references. This will encourage the reader to stay focused on the text of the research paper, instead of having to read through all of the reference information.
These types of footnotes and endnotes are helpful when explaining translations, adding background information, or sharing counterexamples to research. To include a footnote or endnote, add a superscript number at the end of the sentence the footnote or endnote refers to. They can be included mid-sentence if necessary, but be sure to add it after any punctuation, such as commas or periods. On the last page of the assignment, the writer includes the full references for the books by Isadora, Parr, and Velazquez.
Need further help with quotes or MLA format examples? Learn more about the style in the news. Paraphrases Paraphrases are created when text or speech from another source are added into a project, but the writer chooses to summarize them and weave in his or her own writing and writing style. Even though the writer modifies the information from another source, it is still necessary to credit the source using proper MLA format.
Paraphrased information uses the same MLA reference format as stated in the section directly above this one. Stay foolish. They should never be simply satisfied with the status quo.
They should continue to push themselves despite possible obstacles and failures. To develop a well-written paraphrase, follow these simple, step-by-step instructions. Read the text carefully and make sure you fully comprehend its meaning. Do not capitalize articles, prepositions, or conjunctions when they fall in the middle of a title. Separate a subtitle with a colon and a space. Italicize titles if the source is self-contained and independent. The title of the work is enclosed in quotation marks if it is part of a larger work.
The title of the overall Web site is italicized if distinct from the the title of the work. Example: Park, Madison. Salda, Michael N.
Publisher, Publication Year. Italicize any other book titles used in your title, and use quotation marks around any other published articles or essays used in your title. Paraphrases Paraphrases are created when text or speech from another source are added into a project, but the writer chooses to summarize them and weave in his or her own writing and writing style. Essentially, a writer will need to take note of primary elements in every source, such as author, title, etc. On the last page of the assignment, the writer includes the full references for the books by Isadora, Parr, and Velazquez. Medium is no longer necessary.
Spelling out abbreviations into their full words and meaning is recommended. Most word processing programs automatically default to using one inch margins. General tips to keep in mind: Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the right margin. If the volume you are using has its own title, cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication. In this situation, it is a good idea to use a footnote or endnote to share information for parenthetical references. Then, for each individual essay from the collection, list the author's name in last name, first name format, the title of the essay, the editor's last name, and the page range: L'Eplattenier, Barbara.
See section 6 of this guide to learn how to properly attribute your paraphrased information. Note on Cross-referencing Several Items from One Anthology: If you cite more than one essay from the same edited collection, MLA indicates you may cross-reference within your works cited list in order to avoid writing out the publishing information for each separate essay.