Likewise, ingestion by pregnant mothers had no effect on fetal, postnatal, pubertal, or adult testicular development of her offspring. Other groups have monitored toxicity over time as well.
For example, the group studying the bar GMO potato also wanted to see if organs and reproductive health were sensitive to GMOs over long exposure times . To do this, they examined the fertility and gestation periods of GMO-eating mothers compared to non-GMO-eating mothers for five generations. They tracked animal body weight, bone, eye, and thymus development, and general retardation.
Like the studies on Bt corn, in all cases, they found no significant differences between the GMO potato and non-GMO potato diets, suggesting that there is no buildup or inheritance of toxicity, even over multiple generations. Figure 1. Work from independent researchers has investigated various aspects of GMO safety, especially concerning consumer health and toxicity. Can GMOs change our genes? Concern has also surrounded the idea that genetically modified DNA would be unstable, causing damage via unintentional mutations not only to the crop, but also to whomever would consume it.
Mutations in DNA are closely tied to cancer and other diseases, and thus mutagenic substances can have dire effects on human health. The creation of mutations, called mutagenesis, can be measured and compared to known mutation-causing agents and known safe compounds, allowing researchers to determine whether drugs, chemicals, and foods cause increased mutation rates.
There are a variety of ways to measure mutagenicity, but the most traditional method is a process pioneered by Bruce Ames at the University of California in Berkeley. His method, now called the Ames test in his honor, is able to track increased rates of mutations in a living thing in response to some substance, like a chemical or food.
Expression of this coat protein confers resistance to CMV, which is the most broadly infectious virus of any known plant virus, thought to infect over 1, plant species from vegetable crops to ornamentals. The results of the Ames test demonstrated no relationship between GMO tomatoes or corn and mutations. They repeated their analysis using two additional methods for analyzing mutagenicity in mice and got the same result, allowing them to conclude that genetically modified DNA did not cause increased mutations in consumers.
Mutagenicity aside, there are also concerns surrounding the ability of the modified DNA to transfer to the DNA of whomever eats it or have other toxic side effects. Depending on the degree of processing of their foods, a given person will ingest between 0.
Consistent with this, the researchers working on the GMO potato attempted to isolate the bar gene from their GMO eating rats. A strong argument for GMO health safety After more than 20 years of monitoring by countries and researchers around the world, many of the suspicions surrounding the effects of GMOs on organ health, our offspring, and our DNA have been addressed and tested Figure 1.
In the data discussed above, alongside many more studies not mentioned here, GMOs have been found to exhibit no toxicity, in one generation or across many. Though each new product will require careful analysis and assessment of safety, it appears that GMOs as a class are no more likely to be harmful than traditionally bred and grown food sources.
Megan L. Norris is a Ph. S2—70, Mar. Flachowsky, A. Chesson, and K. Tamar Haspel. Washington Post. October 15, Jeffrey Smith. Rhee, D. Cho, Y. Won, J. Seok, S. Kim, S. Kwack, R. Da Lee, S. Chae, J. Kim, B.
Lee, K. Park, and K. A, vol. Chen, H. Gu, Y. Li, Y. Su, P. Wu, Z. A devastating cyclone had just hit the people of Burma, a thuggish ruling junta was causing havoc in their lives, and the young boy had to know about it. Who was I? A future lab scientist, or the next president to come out of the state of California? Early on, my mother could see this dichotomy developing within my own personality. I got many puzzled looks when I asked for a subscription to TIME magazine along with a microscope kit for my tenth birthday.
My career ambitions would seesaw between an astronaut and world traveler. The two Marshalls would battle for a supermajority of the hours in each day until I decided to be the critical vote to swing toward one Marshall or the other. These two halves behaved like two brothers; a modern day Cain and Abel with my punishment seemingly being sternal self-damnation. Approaching adolescence, the two Marshalls would fight for relevance in my mind. One, an active soccer defender, would yell war cries in the middle of his match in a not-so-well-thought-out attempt at intimidation.
The other knew his way around a World Book encyclopedia set, even at the expense of social crucifixion. Stevie Wonder was blasting from speakers as I studied the origins of Greek democracy.
I struggled immensely with the thought of my future. The conclusion drawn from these explanations was simple: the two Marshalls had no place together. After several years of intense self-reflection, I realized college would be the platform where I could passionately grow and find out who I want to be in this world. I can picture myself starting the day studying the decay patterns of radioactive elements and finishing the day by debating the success of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty.
.Chae, J. Jiang, X. My career ambitions would seesaw between an astronaut and world traveler. They tracked animal body weight, bone, eye, and thymus development, and general retardation. Approaching adolescence, the two Marshalls would fight for relevance in my mind. Rat feeding studies like these, in which rats are fed a potential toxic item and monitored for adverse effects, are considered both specific and sensitive for monitoring toxicity of foods and widely used in the food regulation industry .
I can picture myself starting the day studying the decay patterns of radioactive elements and finishing the day by debating the success of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty. One boy dedicated his time to observe the remains of an assassin bug, a hugely impactful predator with a name fit for its voracious nature. Cho, Y. Norris Summary: As the prevalence of genetically modified organisms GMOs continues to rise, there has been an increasing public interest for information concerning the safety of these products. Seok, S.
Chae, J. In this case, the rats were eating a type of GMO corn, more commonly known as Bt corn. Thaler, and D.
Jeffrey Smith. The group found no change in testicular health or litter sizes in any generation. Finally, they carried out histopathology and again found no differences in the stomach, liver, heart, kidney, spleen, or reproductive organs of GMO versus non-GMO fed rats. ESSAY For the longest time there were two people waking up in my bed each morning, and neither of them knew who I was.
Jiang, X. I can picture myself starting the day studying the decay patterns of radioactive elements and finishing the day by debating the success of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty. Who was I? Early on, my mother could see this dichotomy developing within my own personality. One example is an anti-GMO advocacy group called the Institute for Responsible Technology IRT , which reported that rats fed a diet containing a GMO potato had virtually every organ system adversely affected after just ten days of feeding .
Figure 1. Consistent with this, the researchers working on the GMO potato attempted to isolate the bar gene from their GMO eating rats. Depending on the degree of processing of their foods, a given person will ingest between 0. To discern whether GMO crops affect fertility or embryos during gestation, a group from South Dakota State University again turned to studies on rats.