A table in a research paper. Any other type of illustrative visual material—for example, a photograph, map, line drawing, graph, or chart—should be labeled Figure usually abbreviated Fig. If the caption of a table or illustration provides complete information about the source and the source is not cited in the text, no entry for the source in the works-cited list is necessary.
A figure in a research paper. Musical illustrations are labeled Example usually abbreviated Ex. Pyotr Ilich Tchaikovsky, Symphony no. A musical example in a research paper. Use a high-quality printer. Corrections and Insertions on Printouts Proofread and correct your research paper carefully before submitting it. If you are checking a printout and find a mistake, reopen the document, make the appropriate revisions, and reprint the corrected page or pages.
Be sure to save the changed file. Spelling checkers and usage checkers are helpful when used with caution. They do not find all errors and sometimes label correct material as erroneous. Do not use the margins or write a change below the line it affects. If corrections on any page are numerous or substantial, revise your document and reprint the page. Binding a Printed Paper Pages of a printed research paper may get misplaced or lost if they are left unattached or merely folded down at a corner.
Many prefer that a paper be secured with a simple paper or binder clip, which can be easily removed and restored. Others prefer the use of staples. Electronic Submission There are at present no commonly accepted standards for the electronic submission of research papers. If you are asked to submit your paper electronically, obtain from your teacher guidelines for formatting, mode of submission e. Spacing Between Words In general, leave one space between words and one space after every comma, semi-colon, or colon.
Traditionally, two spaces are required at the end of every sentence whether the sentence ends with a period, a question mark, or an exclamation mark. Although it is not wrong to leave two spaces after a period, it is quite acceptable nowadays to leave only one space after each punctuation mark. However, NO space should be left in front of a punctuation mark; for example, the following would be incorrect: op.
Use the width of your thumb as a rough guide. Your instructor may give you a choice to indent or not to indent your paragraphs.
Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size to point. Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section. Page numbers appear flush right within your header. Section headings and subsection headings within the body of your paper use different types of formatting depending on the level of information you are presenting.
Exercise 2 Begin formatting the final draft of your paper according to APA guidelines. You may work with an existing document or set up a new document if you choose. Include the following: Your title page The abstract you created in Note Depending on the length and complexity of the paper, its major sections may also be divided into subsections, sub-subsections, and so on.
These smaller sections, in turn, use different heading styles to indicate different levels of information. In essence, you are using headings to create a hierarchy of information.
The following heading styles used in APA formatting are listed in order of greatest to least importance: Section headings use centered, boldface type. Headings use title case, with important words in the heading capitalized.
Subsection headings use left-aligned, boldface type. Headings use title case. The third level uses left-aligned, indented, boldface type. Headings use a capital letter only for the first word, and they end in a period. The fourth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are boldfaced and italicized. The fifth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are italicized and not boldfaced.
Did I avoid using contractions? Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Order Now Write your first draft Start with the first topic in your outline. The major components of a paper written in APA style are listed in the following box. Use these general guidelines to format the paper: Set the top, bottom, and side margins of your paper at 1 inch.
Use these general guidelines to format the paper: Set the top, bottom, and side margins of your paper at 1 inch.
Use the headers and footers tool of your word-processing program to add the header, with the title text at the left and the page number in the upper-right corner.
Electronic submission of documents is becoming more common as e-mail is being used widely. If the list contains only one entry, make the heading Work Cited. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.
A table is usually labeled Table, given an arabic numeral, and titled. Apply APA guidelines as you write, so you will not have much to correct during the editing stage. Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section. The title of the project has to be written beside the page number on the top right-hand corner of each page. If you find that the rules of proper source documentation are difficult to keep straight, you are not alone. Checklist two: Did I begin each paragraph with a proper topic sentence?
Exercise 1 Write an abstract summarizing your paper. Left justify or justify your essay and type in the hyphens yourself where needed.