Double space again and center the title. Do not underline, italicize, or place your title in quotation marks; write the title in Title Case standard capitalization , not in all capital letters. Create a header in the upper right-hand corner that includes your last name, followed by a space with a page number; number all pages consecutively with Arabic numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.
Always follow instructor guidelines. These sections may include individual chapters or other named parts of a book or essay.
Essays MLA recommends that when you divide an essay into sections that you number those sections with an arabic number and a period followed by a space and the section name. Early Writings. Your abstract summary is a way to introduce readers to your research topic, the questions that will be answered, the process you took, and any findings or conclusions you drew.
Use concise, brief, informative language. You only have a few sentences to share the summary of your entire document, so be direct with your wording. This summary should not be indented, but should be double-spaced and less than words. If applicable, help researchers find your work in databases by listing keywords from your paper after your summary. To do this, indent and type Keywords: in italics. Then list your keywords that stand out in your research. You can also include keyword strings that you think readers will type into the search box.
Use an active voice, not a passive voice. When writing with an active voice, the subject performs the action. When writing with a passive voice, the subject receives the action. Active voice: The subjects reacted to the medication. Passive voice: There was a reaction from the subjects taking the medication.
Instead of evaluating your project in the abstract, simply report what it contains. The body of most scientific papers On the page after the abstract, begin with the body of the paper. Most scientific papers follow this format: Start with the Running head. The running head on the abstract page differs from the running head on the title page. Also include the page number.
The abstract page should be page 2. On the next line write the title. Do not bold, underline, or italicize the title. Begin with the introduction and indent the first line of the paragraph. The introduction presents the problem and premise upon which the research was based. It goes into more detail about this problem than the abstract.
Begin a new section with the Method and use this word as the subtitle. On page 4 of your essay, for example, your top right-hand corner should show: Jones 4 Page numbers must be written in Arabic numerals. Do not add anything fancy to decorate a page number. Simply write: 4 Remember, there is no period after the page number.
Electronic submission of documents is becoming more common as e-mail is being used widely. Reuse part of your thesis statement. Citations This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism , etc.
For a resource to help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder. To fully cite a source requires two stages. Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the whole passage. You can usually make your point with a shorter quote. This is different from inline quotes, below.
The top of the first page of a works-cited list. Tables and Illustrations Place tables and illustrations as close as possible to the parts of the text to which they relate. A table is usually labeled Table, given an arabic numeral, and titled. Type both label and title flush left on separate lines above the table, and capitalize them as titles do not use all capital letters. Give the source of the table and any notes immediately below the table in a caption. To avoid confusion between notes to the text and notes to the table, designate notes to the table with lowercase letters rather than with numerals.
Double-space throughout; use dividing lines as needed fig. A table in a research paper. Any other type of illustrative visual material—for example, a photograph, map, line drawing, graph, or chart—should be labeled Figure usually abbreviated Fig. If the caption of a table or illustration provides complete information about the source and the source is not cited in the text, no entry for the source in the works-cited list is necessary.
A figure in a research paper. Musical illustrations are labeled Example usually abbreviated Ex.
Level 5: Should be the smallest heading in your paper Indented Italicized Only place an uppercase letter at the first word of the heading. Use hanging indent paragraph format. Some teachers and professors do not require a title page, but some do. It sheds light on issues and attempts to fill those gaps with suggestions for future research and methods. Double-space between the title and the first entry. So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the unique point you want to make about Hamlet and Macbeth.
Spacing Between Words In general, leave one space between words and one space after every comma, semi-colon, or colon. Example: Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3. All rights reserved. On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to the right. However, NO space should be left in front of a punctuation mark; for example, the following would be incorrect: op.
A table is usually labeled Table, given an arabic numeral, and titled. Do not use the margins or write a change below the line it affects. Change it to 2.
To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add these components onto each page. Note: Your instructor may ask that you omit the number on your first page. Your title may take up one or two lines, but should not be more than 12 words in length. To let the reader know what we changed, we put  around it. The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to get an individual works-cited entry. Case studies Case studies present information related an individual, group, or larger set of individuals.
Instead of evaluating your project in the abstract, simply report what it contains. The header should look like this on the other pages: 6.
If the author is an organization such as a government agency or non-profit foundation , alphabetize according to the name of the organization.
This is different from block quotes, above. Example: Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3. If the quotation runs across more than one page: Wordsworth-Fuller or Wordsworth-Fuller A title. Double space again and center the title. If you use single spacing in one table, make sure all of the others use single spaces as well.
Instead of evaluating your project in the abstract, simply report what it contains. Example: Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3. A table in a research paper.
On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to the right.
Running Head with Page Numbers Number all pages consecutively throughout the research paper in the upper right-hand corner, half an inch from the top and flush with the right margin. While it provides a general overview of APA references, it does not provide instructions for how to cite in APA format. This Discussion section is a chance to analyze and interpret your results. Follow the rules for capitalization in the MLA Handbook 67—68 , and italicize only the words that you would italicize in the text.