Create a Detailed Outline This is often one of the most boring and onerous steps, so students tend to skip outlining and go straight to writing. Creating an outline might seem tedious, but it can be an enormous time-saver down the road and will make the writing process much easier.
Start by looking over the notes you made during the research process and consider how you want to present all of your ideas and research. Introduce the Topic Once you are ready to write your introduction, your first task is to provide a brief description of the research question.
What is the experiment or study attempting to demonstrate? What phenomena are you studying? Provide a brief history of your topic and explain how it relates to your current research. As you are introducing your topic, consider what makes it important?
Why should it matter to your reader? The goal of your introduction is not only to let your reader know what your paper is about, but also to justify why it is important for them to learn more.
If your paper tackles a controversial subject and is focused on resolving the issue, it is important to summarize both sides of the controversy in a fair and impartial way. Consider how your paper fits in with the relevant research on the topic. Summarize Previous Research The second task of your introduction is to provide a well-rounded summary of previous research that is relevant to your topic.
So, before you begin to write this summary, it is important to research your topic thoroughly. Brought to you by Sciencing. Your paper's abstract should stand alone on the page directly after the title page. If you include an abstract with your paper, begin the rest of the paper on a new page after the abstract with the body of your paper following the introduction on that page. Remove any information from your introduction that doesn't help readers follow your argument or better understand your point of view.
Use leading statements, such as, "The evidence suggests Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. Method labeled, centered, bold The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision.
Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. Note that in some studies e. Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. How were the participants recruited? Were they compensated for their time in any way? Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. Materials labeled, flush left, bold Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth.
If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was e. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here.
Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. Procedure labeled, flush left, bold What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable e. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it.
Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Results labeled, centered, bold In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis.
Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. Report exact p values to two or three decimal places e. However, for p-values less than. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding s in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis e. This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers within the same paragraph. Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs.
It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper e. Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure.
Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section.
See the APA manual.
This will make it much easier to prepare your reference section later on. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. Your paper's abstract should stand alone on the page directly after the title page. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. What new knowledge would be gained from it? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior?
Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption e. Focus on hitting the main points and try to include the most relevant studies. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented. Creating an outline might seem tedious, but it can be an enormous time-saver down the road and will make the writing process much easier.
Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. Create a Detailed Outline This is often one of the most boring and onerous steps, so students tend to skip outlining and go straight to writing. Figure If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. As you are introducing your topic, consider what makes it important? In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Please try again.
What additional questions were generated from this study? Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. The title page, abstract, references, table s , and figure s should be on their own pages. Consider how your paper fits in with the relevant research on the topic.
Please try again. New York: Worth Table There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. Start by looking over the notes you made during the research process and consider how you want to present all of your ideas and research. So, before you begin to write this summary, it is important to research your topic thoroughly. Be sure to refer to these in your paper e.
What gaps are there in the current body of research? Include any relevant background Compose Next, create a thesis statement that identifies your major point, claim or argument. Explain Start your introduction with an explanation of the problem you plan to explore within the paper and also state the paper's purpose.
Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles.
Different types of information about your study are addressed in each of the sections, as described below. Discussion labeled, centered, bold The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area.