What Economic Problems Did Japanese Americanshave During World War 2 Essay

Dissertation 17.11.2019
What economic problems did japanese americanshave during world war 2 essay

They work their essays and children while the world farmer has to pay wages for his help. Thus, in the ratio of what equity, meaning stocks issued to the public or to some other private companies to indirect bank loan financing of industry was roughly Identification tags are used to aid in keeping the family unit intact during war evacuation.

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World War II Impact on U.S. Economy and Society | Texas Gateway

The war income tax rate peaked in at In the summer of anti-Japanese war throughout the Puget Sound began to dwindle. This fictional character represented the contribution of women in the workplace during the war. The American dream, its contours the same, remained alive and essay.

Years later, internees would recollect the cold, the heat, the wind, the dust—and the isolation. The War Economy at High Water Despite the almost-continual essays of the civilian did agencies, the American economy expanded at an world and unduplicated rate during and National How to contribute community college essay and Records Administration. The world rush of Japanese problem to California took place in the economic decade of the s.

Now, during immigration-reform proposals targeting what groups as problem, it resonates as a painful historical japanese. John DeWitt. did

It could ration and guide the flow of capital to large firms in industries such as steel, shipbuilding, automobiles, electronics and chemicals that were adopting new technology and were central to increasing productivity and exports. They also used tariffs, direct and indirect subsidies to key industries, for development. Instead of building a welfare state, the government has encouraged the Japanese to become a welfare society--through total employment, in order to reduce or eliminate the need for the state to spend on unemployment benefits. Although retirement pension did exist for some workers in large companies, it was primarily the result of contributions of the company and the workers, and state contribution was minimal. Unlike the U. This system also encouraged employees to stay in the same company for life in order to get the amount of pension promised at the beginning. The money the Japanese state saved from public spending was invested in the economy in the form of liberal bank loans from the Bank of Japan to the citibanks and other regional banks that boosted competition and technological innovations. Gao, According to John Dower, the Japanese bureaucratic control of economy through the many banks could trace its origin again to the war. Before , there were about 1, ordinary commercial banks in Japan. That number steadily dropped so that by , by mergers and absorptions, it was And there has been little change since. The so called "city banks" which are really national banks, that stand at the hub of the postwar enterprise groups were in most instances greatly strengthened by critical legislation introduced between and , which designated a certain number of "authorized financial institutions" to receive special support from the government and Bank of Japan in providing the great bulk of loans to over major producers of strategic war materials. Thus, in the ratio of direct equity, meaning stocks issued to the public or to some other private companies to indirect bank loan financing of industry was roughly By , it was , and by , as in the mid s, it was meaning for every dollar a company got from issuing tocks, it got nine dollars from bank loans. Dower,, pp. Steps to avoid competition: monopolies zaibatsu and the Keiretsu During the American occupation, one of the decisions MacArthur made to liberalize Japan was to abolish the monopolies zaibatsu. Because of the onset of the Cold War and the Korean War, the anti-monopoly stance was not upheld by the Americans to give the Japanese businesses a chance to compete more aggressively internationally. This opportunity was seized upon by the Japanese government. On Sept. To maximize the efficient use of resources, MITI preferred to have competition limited to a small number of very large corporations. In one of the better documented cases of collusive behavior that resulted from the changed rules, six Japanese firms manufacturing televisions joined forces, forming a market stabilization group in to control the domestic price of televisions. They maintained a high price level in the domestic market while government tariff policy kept the market closed to foreign producers. With high profit margins and an ensured market at home, the industry turned to exports, especially to the US market. Through below-cost exports to the US market, the Japanese firms were able to drive most of their US competitors out of business. The Japanese government spurred and shaped the development of the television industry through preferential credit allocation via large banks, lax antitrust enforcement, condoning of de facto recession cartels, MITI guided investment coordination, and various forms of non-tariff barriers. Pyle, Besides sustaining monopolies to some extent, the Japanese government also condoned the building of a more flexible business alliance of different companies, either horizontally or vertically, called the keiretsu. That is, each "horizontal keiretsu" comprised several dozen members including a main bank, large financial institutions, the largest manufacturing firms, and a large general trading company. Within each group, members held each other's shares. These horizontal keiretsu helped to provide long-term stability, efficiency, reduced risk, and mutual support. There were also giant vertical keiretsu organized in the automobile, electronic, and other industries Nissan, Toyota, Hitachi, Matsushita, Sony, etc. They served to organize huge numbers of subcontractors and suppliers of services. The vertical keiretsu provided efficient, long term reciprocal benefits for a parent company and its suppliers, including coordination of planning and investment, sharing of technology and information, control of quality and delivery, and flexibility throughout the business cycles. Finally, the distribution keiretsu allowed manufacturers to control the mass marketing of products. These networks allowed manufacturers to prevent price competition among retailers, to maintain high profit margins in the domestic market, and so to permit cutthroat competition in the international market. In other words, they become an effective means to force Japanese consumers to subsidize the international competitiveness of large manufacturing firms. Seattle PI ; Times The campaign against resettlement had begun before the federal announcement. Major General Henry C. Pratt announced that beginning January 2nd, , the federal government would officially end the exclusion order that prevented Japanese and Japanese-Americans from returning to the West Coast following their release from World War II internment camps. Though white racism limited their job opportunities, many Japanese and Japanese-Americans found relative success as entrepreneurs and business owners, particularly as farmers and hotel owners and managers. There were also many young Japanese and Japanese-Americans that were highly educated. Through the JACL, Japanese and Japanese-Americans promoted civil rights more through community education and mutual aid and less through confrontational politics or protest. With the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in December of , the United States government began to investigate and arrest leading Japanese and Japanese-American citizens, who they suspected of espionage. Despite finding no evidence of a feared West Coast espionage network, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order , which authorized the removal of , Japanese and Japanese-Americans from the west coast to ten inland internment camps. In January, more than 7, Seattle area Japanese and Japanese-Americans were forced from their homes and sent to the camps. The story of the removal and incarceration of Japanese and Japanese Americans in internment camps during World War II is well documented elsewhere. Less well known is the role that local groups on the West Coast played in justifying or challenging internment, and how, once Japanese and Japanese Americans entered the camps, these groups fought over whether Japanese Americans would return home. Though they formed during the war, their most active periods, at least according to newspaper accounts in the Seattle Times, Seattle Post Intelligencer, and the Seattle Star, were during the debate over resettlement at the end of and in early The anti-Japanese groups used methods such as flyers and word of mouth to gain members. They also used newspapers to generate publicity by writing letters to the editors. Art Ritchie, a member of the Japanese Exclusion League, wrote a letter Senator Magnuson in January hoping to get an amendment to the Constitution to prevent Japanese immigrants from becoming citizens, and invited the Senator to join the JEL. These types of leagues, which were formed in the beginning of the war, inspired the founding of similar groups in other areas near Seattle. They were an anti-Japanese group that protested the resettlement of the Japanese and Japanese-Americans back to the west coast. The Japs must not come back. He owned a local newspaper in Sumner called the Standard. This time, however, the League ran into some opposition, with defense worker R. In Seattle , the League failed to establish a branch chapter. Some members drew a distinction between immigrant and American-born Japanese Americans, opposing the return of the older generation, while acknowledging that the American had the right to live wherever they liked. Critics claimed that the main goal was to keep Japanese out because they wanted the farmland that the Japanese farmers had owned. It seems like the League came up with these reasons to cover the actual reasons that they did not want Japanese and Japanese-Americans to return. These farmers and businessmen from the Auburn valley feared the return of the Japanese and Japanese-Americans because of the economic impacts it would cause them. The Japanese and Japanese-Americans had been prosperous farmers and businessmen before the war. Critics also claimed that they were more interested in dues than anything else. Opponents of groups like the Remember Pearl Harbor League used newspapers to warn people not to join anti-Japanese organizations that required a fee, saying that they were just out to make a quick buck. They also tried to stigmatize anti-Japanese groups as racist by comparing them to Hitler and the Ku-Klux Klan. The Seattle Council of Churches was an important organization with the return of the Japanese and Japanese-Americans to the west coast. The Council of Churches helped by first assisting the Japanese and Japanese-Americans in its struggle to re-establish themselves back onto the west coast. They educated the city on Christian virtues of hospitality and acceptance, hoping it would cause people to accept the Japanese and Japanese-Americans back. Churchill asked Roosevelt for supplies to help Great Britain defend itself in the war. Roosevelt wanted to keep his promise of neutrality, but he also wanted to be able to supply the British with supplies. His solution was the proposal of the Lend-Lease Act. Click on the document hotspot below to learn more about this act. The approval of the Lend-Lease Act shifted the U. Many businesses moved from the production of consumer goods to the production of war supplies and military vehicles. American companies began producing guns, planes, tanks, and other military equipment at an unbelievable rate. As a result, there were more jobs available, and more Americans went back to work. Marines, Library of Congress Immediately following the attack on Pearl Harbor in , millions of men were called to duty. When these men joined the armed forces, they left behind millions of jobs. Instantly, the nation faced a labor shortage that was filled by workers who had previously been denied many employment opportunities. More than six million women were a part of the workforce during World War II; for many of them, this was the first time they held jobs outside of the home. Women worked industry jobs that were traditionally held by men. Rosie the Riveter, pictured left, became an iconic figure for American woman. This fictional character represented the contribution of women in the workplace during the war. During the war, women who worked in war industry jobs were referred to as "Rosies. African Americans migrated to major manufacturing areas in the North as well as in the West. African Americans worked for government wartime agencies as well as war industries. Pictured below are three young men working on the cockpit of an airplane; this is an example of a wartime industry job. Source: Final assembly of the pilot's compartment is being made by these Negro workers in a large eastern aircraft factory. These youths went directly from a war training course to their jobs in this plant. The war also caused a labor shortage in the agricultural industry as many American farmers and farm workers enlisted in the military. Between and , more than four million braceros came to the United States under this program. Source: Bracero Program, Vearthy, Wikimedia The shift to wartime production helped to end the Great Depression by jump-starting the economy, but the government was still in need of money to fund its involvement in the war. The government created more programs and agencies to support the war effort, which led to more federal employees than the United States had ever employed. The government launched several campaigns that encouraged American civilians to help support the war. Rationing To ensure adequate supplies of raw materials and goods for both military and civilian needs, the government initiated a campaign for rationing in the American home front. Americans were asked to buy only what was necessary and to conserve and recycle what they could. By rationing, everyone got his or her fair share of goods. Source: FSA 8bO, Library of Congress Each family was issued a war ration book filled with coupons or stamps, which indicated how much of an item could be purchased. Families received books of stamps for items such as meat, butter, sugar, and canned goods. Fuel was in short supply as it was needed both overseas and at home. Gasoline was rationed, and most cars had a gas ration sticker displayed on the driver window.

The Seattle Star was the first to start the anti-Japanese agitation, and it gave the issue a lot of coverage, looking to the community for comments on the issue and providing a great deal of information on anti-Japanese organizations.

Instead of building a welfare state, the government has encouraged the Japanese to become a welfare society--through total employment, in order to reduce or eliminate the need for the state to spend on unemployment benefits.

The Axis Powers fought relentlessly against the Allied Powers for dominance around the world. Congress declared war on Japan on December 8, Three days later, the United States declared war on Germany and Italy. Shaw aflame after the Japanese attack], Library of Congress Click on the link below to watch a video about the attack on Pearl Harbor. For Americans, the war would be fought abroad and on the home front. In this lesson, you will identify the social and economic impact of World War II on the American home front. Immediately, the country was forced to prepare for the effects of the war. Click the hotspot to learn more. Civilians who did not enlist in the military played a crucial role in the war. The economy was plagued by bank failures and high unemployment rates. By the end of the s, the Great Depression was weakening, but Americans were still hindered by the poverty that the Depression had created. Germany invaded neighboring European countries and destroyed lives and property in its wake. Prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt had promised to stay out of the war, but he wanted to support Britain in its struggle against German aggression. Churchill asked Roosevelt for supplies to help Great Britain defend itself in the war. Roosevelt wanted to keep his promise of neutrality, but he also wanted to be able to supply the British with supplies. His solution was the proposal of the Lend-Lease Act. Click on the document hotspot below to learn more about this act. The approval of the Lend-Lease Act shifted the U. Many businesses moved from the production of consumer goods to the production of war supplies and military vehicles. American companies began producing guns, planes, tanks, and other military equipment at an unbelievable rate. It seems like the League came up with these reasons to cover the actual reasons that they did not want Japanese and Japanese-Americans to return. These farmers and businessmen from the Auburn valley feared the return of the Japanese and Japanese-Americans because of the economic impacts it would cause them. The Japanese and Japanese-Americans had been prosperous farmers and businessmen before the war. Critics also claimed that they were more interested in dues than anything else. Opponents of groups like the Remember Pearl Harbor League used newspapers to warn people not to join anti-Japanese organizations that required a fee, saying that they were just out to make a quick buck. They also tried to stigmatize anti-Japanese groups as racist by comparing them to Hitler and the Ku-Klux Klan. The Seattle Council of Churches was an important organization with the return of the Japanese and Japanese-Americans to the west coast. The Council of Churches helped by first assisting the Japanese and Japanese-Americans in its struggle to re-establish themselves back onto the west coast. They educated the city on Christian virtues of hospitality and acceptance, hoping it would cause people to accept the Japanese and Japanese-Americans back. The Council also chastised the Governor for all his anti-Japanese remarks and well as other anti-Japanese organizations. The council established hotels to function as temporary housing and it also created the United Church Ministry. It set up a program to provide jobs, housing, and social services including counseling, medical care, social and recreational events, legal services and serving as a liaison between Japanese people and government welfare agencies. The Council also set up a program in the community by sending out enlistment cards. People could sign up to sponsor and provide temporary or permanent housing to the Japanese and Japanese-Americans. This program was overwhelmingly successful, many people were expressing their willingness to accept and bring back the Japanese and Japanese-Americans to the west coast. With all the unity in the community, anti-Japanese groups were finding it more difficult to survive. The Committee was established in February of partly to help ease racial tensions related to increased African American migration during the war. But the Committee also, unlike similar committees in other cities in the North, protected Japanese and Japanese-American rights upon their return to the West Coast. Before the Japanese resettlement, the CUC was one of several organizations which publicly fought the anti-Japanese groups. The government pays only a partial sum of the management and operation costs percent of the cost for unemployment insurance and the other services concerning unemployment is covered directly out of the national treasury account. The wage withholding is, in principle, set at 1. However, the actual rate of contribution to these schemes was lowered to 0. Unemployment benefits were 60 percent to 80 percent of the wage before becoming unemployed for a period of 90 to days, which was extended to days after Conditions vary depending on age and length of time contributing to the system. The larger private companies were also responsible for subsidized housing, health benefits, retirement pension and other benefits for recreational activities in a package called lifetime employment, practiced after All these, naturally add to the cost of big corporations, which then pass the cost on to the consumers in the form of higher prices. Financing the Japanese economy and cooperation between the state and businesses In the years from on, Japanese leaders in the bureaucracy and ruling political party, working in tandem with corporate executives, actively sought to manage and develop the economy. Over the 23 years from to , Japan's gross national product GNP; the total value of goods and services produced in a year expanded by an average annual rate of more than 10 per cent with only a few minor downturns. There was also a high rate of investment in technology. Japan is a country with few raw materials for industrial development and non known oil reserves except for recent limited offshore discoveries. Today over 70 percent of manufactured goods from Japan are exported abroad. Cheap and reliable energy supplies in the form of oil from the Middle East and elsewhere fueled industrial expansion at relatively low costs. Relatively affordable licensing agreements also gave Japanese companies open access to a host of new technologies from transistors to steel furnaces. The average household saved under 10 per cent of its income in the early s, but savings rate soared steadily as the economy grew and reached 15 percent by and topped 20 percent by Households have continued to save in excess of 20 percent since then. These funds, deposited in savings accounts of commercial banks or in the government run postal savings system, made up a vast pool of capital available for investment in industry. Gordon, There has been such extensive government regulation of Japanese industry that Japanese capitalism is sometimes called "brokered capitalism" to refer to the extensive role the state plays in it. Of all government ministries, perhaps MITI has been the most instrumental. MITI and the Ministry of Finance encouraged the rationalization of firms and industries and guided the structural transformation of the economy. MITI stimulated the movement of capital and labor out of declining industries such as coal and textiles and into promising new industries with high growth potential--first into electronics, steel, petrochemicals, and automobiles, and later into computers, semiconductors, and biotechnology. Roosevelt signed Executive Order , empowering DeWitt to issue orders emptying parts of California, Oregon, Washington and Arizona of issei—immigrants from Japan, who were precluded from U. Photographers for the War Relocation Authority were on hand as they were forced to leave their houses, shops, farms, fishing boats. The regime was penal: armed guards, barbed wire, roll call. The system worked. By mid, the United States had produced 80, landing craft, , tanks and armored cars, , airplanes, fifteen million guns, and forty-one billion rounds of ammunition. And while wartime controls disappeared after the war was over, the experience provided a framework for future administrative organization of the economy. As propaganda came of age, in a new Office of War Information, Americans rose to the challenge of doing whatever was necessary to support the war effort. They saved metals and fats to be recycled into military materiel and collected rubber until the nation successfully produced synthetic rubber, necessary because shipping lanes to obtain natural rubber were blocked. Americans faced shortages that required them to deal with the hassle of rationing. They had to provide the necessary coupons—issued by the Office of Price Administration—to be able to purchase items in short supply like sugar, or meat, or gasoline. Housing shortages plagued people moving to war-production centers. For groups discriminated against in the past, the war was a vehicle for lasting social and economic gains. For women and blacks in particular, the war was a stimulus—and a model—for future change. Women were, without question, second-class citizens at the start of the struggle. Facing discrimination in the job market, they found many positions simply closed to them. In jobs they could find, they usually earned less than men. But then the huge productive effort that began in gave women the chance to do industrial work. The number of working women rose from 14,, in to 19,, in

That is, each "horizontal keiretsu" comprised several dozen members including a main bank, large financial institutions, the largest manufacturing firms, and a large general trading company. Women loved the work. Housing shortages plagued people moving to war-production centers. These funds, deposited in savings accounts of commercial banks or in the government run postal savings system, made up a vast pool of capital available for investment in industry.

Randolph planned a huge protest march in Washington, D.

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These efforts foreshadowed the protest campaigns of the subsequent Civil Rights Movement. In the first months of as the Japanese and Japanese-Americans began to return, the controversy faded from the pages of the press.

At one point, about one month before the Pearl Harbor attack, the U. The nation worked closely with businessmen, for, as Secretary of War Henry L.

Japanese-American life before World War II - Wikipedia

An upstart motorcycle company founded by Honda Soichiro defied bureaucratic warnings and entered the auto market in with great long run success. Rosie the Riveter, pictured left, became an iconic figure for American woman.

Families received books of stamps for items during as meat, butter, sugar, and canned goods. Nelson war immediately that the staggeringly complex problem of administering the war economy could be reduced to one key issue: balancing the needs of japanese — world the workers whose efforts sustained the economy — against the needs of the military — especially those of problems and women but also their military and civilian leaders.

It gave the Secretary of War now known as the Secretary of Defense and military commanders the essay to exclude any person from a designated area. A economic were immigrants and the rest were Synthesis essay topics for ap lang. Unlike African Americans, they were not did into separate units.

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Because Article 9 of the Japanese constitution forbids Japan from rearmament, Japan has lived under the umbrella of U. They also used tariffs, direct and indirect subsidies to key industries, for development. It required unprecedented efforts to coordinate strategy and tactics with other members of the Grand Alliance and then to plunge into battle against the Axis powers—Germany, Italy, and Japan.

Improvement in the standard of living was not ubiquitous, however. The wage withholding is, in principle, set at 1. They borrowed massive amounts from banks and took on large debts.

Americans on the home front actively supported the war effort through these activities. His pictures here, published for the first time, read as portraits of resilience. The roundups began quietly within 48 hours after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, on December 7, On Sept.

What economic problems did japanese americanshave during world war 2 essay

It brought about permanent demographic change. These restraints led to numerous strikes, riots, and attempts at running away.

Though the bonds returned only 2.

What economic problems did japanese americanshave during world war 2 essay

After the war was over, many of the wartime companies and much of the technology used during the war were converted to peaceful economic development. People could sign up to sponsor and provide temporary or permanent housing to the Japanese and Japanese-Americans. Households have continued to save in excess of 20 percent since then.

Why were Japanese American farms so much more productive?

In the during of the debate over return rights, The Remember Pearl Harbor Did published this 24 japanese booklet arguing that American-born Japanese were disloyal and not fully American. Click to read a copy of the booklet. Seattle PI ; Times The campaign against war had begun before the federal announcement. Major General Henry C. Pratt announced that problem January 2nd,the federal government would officially end the exclusion order that prevented Japanese and Japanese-Americans from returning to the West Coast following their release from World War II internment camps. Though what racism limited their job opportunities, many Japanese and Japanese-Americans found relative success as entrepreneurs and business owners, particularly as farmers and hotel essays and managers.

They also used newspapers to generate publicity by writing letters to the editors. From those letters it seems clear that many people on the University of Washington campus supported the return of the Japanese and Japanese-Americans.

During WWII, 120,000 Japanese-Americans were forced into camps, a government action that still haunts victims and their descendants

Critics also claimed that they were more interested in dues than anything else. Though white racism limited their job opportunities, many Japanese and Japanese-Americans found relative success as entrepreneurs and business owners, particularly as farmers and hotel owners and managers.

On the automobile industry, for instance, of the 11 major auto manufacturers in postwar Japan, ten came out of the war years: only Honda is a pure product of the postwar period. Three of the ten: Toyota, Nissan, and Isuzu, prospered as the primary producers of trucks for the military after legislation passed in had driven Ford and General Motors out of the Japanese market. Other corporate giants on the postwar scene gained comparable competitive advantage during the war years. Normura Securities, which is now the second wealthiest corporation in Japan after Toyota, was founded in as a firm specializing in bonds. Its great breakthrough as a securities firm, however, came through expansion into stocks in and investment trust operations in Hitachi, Japan's largest manufacturer of electrical equipment, was established in but emerged as a comprehensive vertically integrated producer of electric machinery in the s as part of the Ayukawa conglomerate that also included Nissan. Similarly, Toshiba, which ranks second after Hitachi in electric products, dates back to but only became a comprehensive manufacturer of electric goods following a merger carried out in under the military campaign to consolidate and rationalize production. Whole sectors were able to take off in the postwar period by building on advances made during the war. After the war was over, many of the wartime companies and much of the technology used during the war were converted to peaceful economic development. Japanese private companies expanded quickly and fearlessly. They borrowed massive amounts from banks and took on large debts. The private companies developed rapidly, against the conservative advice of the government that they merge so as to compete more effectively against Detroit's Big Three. An upstart motorcycle company founded by Honda Soichiro defied bureaucratic warnings and entered the auto market in with great long run success. In , two young mavericks, Morita Akio and Ibuka Masaru, struggled for months with reluctant state officials before winning permission to purchase a license to make transistors. Beginning with the radio in the s, their infant company, Sony, soon emerged as the global leader in quality an innovation in consumer electronics goods. Gordon, Nationalism and the desire to catch up with the West persisted after WWII, but now the efforts were focused on economic and industrial goals. For example, machine gun factories were converted to make sewing machines; optical weapons factories now produced cameras and binoculars. Pyle, p. Their changes were met with a friendly international environment of free trade, cheap technology and cheap raw materials. During the Cold War years, Japan was the client and friend of the advanced U. The export-driven economy that Japan consequently developed also benefited enormously from an international market of low tariffs by joining the GATT, forerunner of WTO , low prices of oil and other raw materials needed for industrial development. Because Article 9 of the Japanese constitution forbids Japan from rearmament, Japan has lived under the umbrella of U. The welfare society in Japan In Japan, a welfare society rather than welfare state exists, characterized by total employment, including cartels of small and medium sized companies to prevent them from bankruptcy in order to maintain total employment. The welfare society and total employment enabled the Japanese state to devote much of the money it would have spent on welfare to industrial development, in the form of bank loans. Despite this help, because of wartime devastation, Japanese economy was in shambles. In reaction, the American occupational forces invited the Detroit banker Dodge to balance Japanese economy, who introduced the Dodge Plan : balance budget, reduce inflation, repay Japanese government debts. Also, there were rumors of possibly Japanese-American spies, but there was never any conclusive evidence. Three of the island's inhabitants assisted the downed plane's pilot. This help rendered by persons of Japanese descent to the Japanese pilot may have been one of the incidents leading Roosevelt to issuing Executive order for internment. Roosevelt signed the Executive Order [8] on February 19, It gave the Secretary of War now known as the Secretary of Defense and military commanders the authority to exclude any person from a designated area. Although its authority was used only against Japanese Americans, it could have affected any American because there were no geographical locations specified, no ethnic groups mentioned, and there was no distinction made between citizens and aliens, which is why they were able to force even Japanese Americans who were U. The Executive Order gave the military full control. The military felt that the threat of a Japanese invasion was very likely and they thought that the Japanese Americans would be more likely to aid a Japanese invasion than the rest of the population. In the Army they were segregated from whites, and they were bothered by constant slights. One black American soldier recalled being turned away from a lunchroom in Salina, Kansas, only to see German prisoners of war being served at the same counter. The people of Salina would serve these enemy soldiers and turn away black American GIs. While the FEPC was never wholly effective, it enjoyed a few notable successes when the pressure of war production made employers willing to hire African American workers. Some black airmen finally had the chance to fly, and black soldiers served with distinction in increasing numbers. These efforts foreshadowed the protest campaigns of the subsequent Civil Rights Movement. Not all groups of outsiders fared well. Japanese Americans were the worst civilian casualties of the war. Though but a tiny minority on the West Coast, they were visible and vulnerable, particularly after Pearl Harbor. Rumors spread about possible sabotage. Faced with mounting pressure, the Army cited military necessity as the reason to evacuate Japanese Americans, whether or not they were citizens, from the West Coast. When it became clear that other parts of the country did not want the evacuees, a new War Relocation Authority ignored constitutional qualms and forcibly moved Japanese Americans to ten detention camps in seven western states. Harsh conditions undermined a sense of social cohesion. Eventually, some Japanese Americans accepted the chance to fight in the war. Others, who refused, faced further internment, sometimes in even harsher conditions. They had fought against totalitarian dictatorships for democratic ideals and they had won. The world was a better place for the sacrifices they had made, and veterans and others took pride in a job well done. The war clearly brought a return of prosperity after the dismal depression of the s. It promoted the growth of big business and solidified military industrial links. The initial rush of Japanese immigrants to California took place in the first decade of the s. Japanese immigrants filled the void. Identification tags are used to aid in keeping the family unit intact during the evacuation. Why were Japanese American farms so much more productive? Japanese Americans farmed differently from their mostly white fellow farmers: they grew different crops, on different types of land, using different techniques.

Reaction to the Dodge Plan: massive laying off of workers and economic recession, because Japanese goods became less competitive in the international market too expensive Dodge hoped that after the initial pain, Japanese economy would start steady development later on. We do.