URBANDIGITAL.ME

How to write a rough draft research paper

  • 24.06.2019
How to write a rough draft research paper

Make sure that you introduce your topic and write your thesis statement. This will help you with the structure of your paper. Write the body of your essay. Remember that you will need, at very least, three paragraphs containing evidence that supports your thesis statement. Improving flow is something you can do in a later draft.

Write your conclusion. This paragraph provides you with the opportunity to summarize your research and show how it supports your thesis statement. You should also restate your thesis statement. Writing Your Conclusion In your introduction, you tell readers where they are headed.

In your conclusion, you recap where they have been. For this reason, some writers prefer to write their conclusions soon after they have written their introduction. However, this method may not work for all writers. Other writers prefer to write their conclusion at the end of the paper, after writing the body paragraphs.

No process is absolutely right or absolutely wrong; find the one that best suits you. No matter when you compose the conclusion, it should sum up your main ideas and revisit your thesis.

Restate it in different words that reflect the new perspective gained through your research. That helps keep your ideas fresh for your readers. An effective writer might conclude a paper by asking a new question the research inspired, revisiting an anecdote presented earlier, or reminding readers of how the topic relates to their lives.

Writing at Work If your job involves writing or reading scientific papers, it helps to understand how professional researchers use the structure described in this section. A scientific paper begins with an abstract that briefly summarizes the entire paper.

The body provides details about the study, such as who participated in it, what the researchers measured, and what results they recorded.

Using Source Material in Your Paper One of the challenges of writing a research paper is successfully integrating your ideas with material from your sources. Your paper must explain what you think, or it will read like a disconnected string of facts and quotations.

However, you also need to support your ideas with research, or they will seem insubstantial. How do you strike the right balance? You have already taken a step in the right direction by writing your introduction. The introduction and conclusion function like the frame around a picture. They define and limit your topic and place your research in context. In the body paragraphs of your paper, you will need to integrate ideas carefully at the paragraph level and at the sentence level.

You will use topic sentences in your paragraphs to make sure readers understand the significance of any facts, details, or quotations you cite.

You will also include sentences that transition between ideas from your research, either within a paragraph or between paragraphs. At the sentence level, you will need to think carefully about how you introduce paraphrased and quoted material.

Earlier you learned about summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting when taking notes. In the next few sections, you will learn how to use these techniques in the body of your paper to weave in source material to support your ideas. Summarizing Sources When you summarize material from a source, you zero in on the main points and restate them concisely in your own words. This technique is appropriate when only the major ideas are relevant to your paper or when you need to simplify complex information into a few key points for your readers.

Be sure to review the source material as you summarize it. Identify the main idea and restate it as concisely as you can—preferably in one sentence. Depending on your purpose, you may also add another sentence or two condensing any important details or examples. Check your summary to make sure it is accurate and complete. Over the past few years, a number of clinical studies have explored whether high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets are more effective for weight loss than other frequently recommended diet plans, such as diets that drastically curtail fat intake Pritikin or that emphasize consuming lean meats, grains, vegetables, and a moderate amount of unsaturated fats the Mediterranean diet.

A study found that obese teenagers who followed a low-carbohydrate diet lost an average of Two studies that measured weight loss for obese adults following these same three diet plans found similar results.

Over three months, subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet plan lost anywhere from four to six kilograms more than subjects who followed other diet plans. Use quotations sparingly for greater impact. When you do choose to quote directly from a source, follow these guidelines: Make sure you have transcribed the original statement accurately.

Never use a stand-alone quotation. Always integrate the quoted material into your own sentence. Use ellipses … if you need to omit a word or phrase. Use brackets [ ] if you need to replace a word or phrase. Make sure any omissions or changed words do not alter the meaning of the original text. Omit or replace words only when absolutely necessary to shorten the text or to make it grammatically correct within your sentence.

Remember to include correctly formatted citations that follow the assigned style guide. Jorge interviewed a dietician as part of his research, and he decided to quote her words in his paper. Sure, for some people, they are great, but for most, any sensible eating and exercise plan would work just as well. Documenting Source Material Throughout the writing process, be scrupulous about documenting information taken from sources.

The purpose of doing so is twofold: To give credit to other writers or researchers for their ideas To allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired You will cite sources within the body of your paper and at the end of the paper in your bibliography. For this assignment, you will use the citation format used by the American Psychological Association also known as APA style. Citing Sources in the Body of Your Paper In-text citations Instances in which use of source material is documented in the body text of the research paper.

In-text citations must have corresponding sources listed in the references section. When quoting a print source, also include in the citation the page number where the quoted material originally appears. The page number will follow the year in the in-text citation. Page numbers are necessary only when content has been directly quoted, not when it has been summarized or paraphrased.

Within a paragraph, this information may appear as part of your introduction to the material or as a parenthetical citation at the end of a sentence.

Read the examples that follow. Summary Leibowitz found that low-carbohydrate diets often helped subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels. Summary Low-carbohydrate diets often help subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels Leibowitz, The period at the end of the sentence comes after the parentheses. Creating a List of References Each of the sources you cite in the body text will appear in a references list A list of sources used in a research paper that provides detailed bibliographical information.

While in-text citations provide the most basic information about the source, your references section will include additional publication details. Using Primary and Secondary Research As you write your draft, be mindful of how you are using primary and secondary source material to support your points.

Recall that primary sources present firsthand information. Secondary sources are one step removed from primary sources. How you balance primary and secondary source material in your paper will depend on the topic and assignment. Using Primary Sources Effectively Some types of research papers must use primary sources extensively to achieve their purpose. Here are a few examples: A paper for a literature course analyzing several poems by Emily Dickinson A paper for a political science course comparing televised speeches delivered by two presidential candidates A paper for a communications course discussing gender biases in television commercials A paper for a business administration course that discusses the results of a survey the writer conducted with local businesses to gather information about their work-from-home and flextime policies A paper for an elementary education course that discusses the results of an experiment the writer conducted to compare the effectiveness of two different methods of mathematics instruction For these types of papers, primary research is the main focus.

And, of course, if you take the time to design and conduct your own field research, such as a survey, a series of interviews, or an experiment, you will want to discuss it in detail.

For example, the interviews may provide interesting responses that you want to share with your reader. Using Secondary Sources Effectively For some assignments, it makes sense to rely more on secondary sources than primary sources. If you are not analyzing a text or conducting your own field research, you will need to use secondary sources extensively. These sources are more reliable and add more value to your paper than sources that are further removed from primary research.

For instance, a popular magazine article on junk-food addiction might be several steps removed from the original scientific study on which it is loosely based. Even if your paper is largely based on primary sources, you may use secondary sources to develop your ideas. Here are a few examples: A paper for a literature course analyzing several poems by Emily Dickinson A paper for a political science course comparing televised speeches delivered by two presidential candidates A paper for a communications course discussing gender biases in television commercials A paper for a business administration course that discusses the results of a survey the writer conducted with local businesses to gather information about their work-from-home and flextime policies A paper for an elementary education course that discusses the results of an experiment the writer conducted to compare the effectiveness of two different methods of mathematics instruction For these types of papers, primary research is the main focus.

And, of course, if you take the time to design and conduct your own field research, such as a survey, a series of interviews, or an experiment, you will want to discuss it in detail.

For example, the interviews may provide interesting responses that you want to share with your reader. Using Secondary Sources Effectively For some assignments, it makes sense to rely more on secondary sources than primary sources.

If you are not analyzing a text or conducting your own field research, you will need to use secondary sources extensively. These sources are more reliable and add more value to your paper than sources that are further removed from primary research.

For instance, a popular magazine article on junk-food addiction might be several steps removed from the original scientific study on which it is loosely based. Even if your paper is largely based on primary sources, you may use secondary sources to develop your ideas. A paper that presents an original experiment would include some discussion of similar prior research in the field. Jorge knew he did not have the time, resources, or experience needed to conduct original experimental research for his paper.

Because he was relying on secondary sources to support his ideas, he made a point of citing sources that were not far removed from primary research. They provide firsthand examples of the media coverage the writer is analyzing.

It is crucial to always distinguish between the two—as you conduct research, as you plan your paper, and as you write. Failure to do so can lead to plagiarism. Plagiarism may be deliberate or may occur unintentionally through careless use of source material. Sometimes a writer plagiarizes work on purpose—for instance, by purchasing an essay from a website and submitting it as original course work. In other cases, a writer may commit accidental plagiarism due to carelessness, haste, or misunderstanding.

To avoid unintentional plagiarism, follow these guidelines: Understand what types of information must be cited. Understand what constitutes fair use of a source. Keep source materials and notes carefully organized. Follow guidelines for summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting sources. When to Cite Any idea or fact taken from an outside source must be cited, in both the body of your paper and the references list. The only exceptions are facts or general statements that are common knowledge.

Common-knowledge facts or general statements are commonly supported by and found in multiple sources. For example, a writer would not need to cite the statement that most breads, pastas, and cereals are high in carbohydrates; this is well known and well documented. However, if a writer explained in detail the differences among the chemical structures of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, a citation would be necessary.

When in doubt, cite. Fair Use In recent years, issues related to the fair use of sources have been prevalent in popular culture. For academic purposes, however, the guidelines for fair use are reasonably straightforward. For instance, a columnist may excerpt a few sentences from a novel when writing a book review. As he worked on his draft, Jorge was careful to cite his sources correctly and not to rely excessively on any one source.

Occasionally, however, he caught himself quoting a source at great length. In those instances, he highlighted the paragraph in question so that he could go back to it later and revise.

After reviewing the paragraph, Jorge realized that he had drifted into unoriginal writing. Most of the paragraph was taken verbatim from a single article. Although Jorge had enclosed the material in quotation marks, he knew it was not an appropriate way to use the research in his paper. Then tie in the background information. Then end the introduction with your thesis. Note: the first and last sentences of this paragraph are already written on your outline.

You need to write 3 or 4 for the background information. Body paragraphs: Each of the 3 body paragraphs should begin with the topic sentence, which you have written on your outline. The topic sentence must be a sentence, not a question, that is your ideas and your words.

After the topic sentence, make a statement that supports your topic sentence and leads into an example, a quote or paraphrase.

Finally, it's time to write! Write a First Draft Every essay or paper draft made rough of three write introduction body conclusion The research is the first paragraph how the paper. It often paper with a general statement about the topic and ends with a more specific statement of the main idea of your paper.

A paper that presents an original experiment would include some discussion of similar prior research in the field. When you do choose to quote directly from a source, follow these guidelines: Make sure you have transcribed the original statement accurately. Read the first draft of his introduction. You will use topic sentences in your paragraphs to make sure readers understand the significance of any facts, details, or quotations you cite.
  • New product business plan sample;
  • Websites that write essays for you yahoo;
  • Sample personal narrative essay for college;
The purpose of doing so is twofold: To give credit to other writers or researchers for their ideas To allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired You will cite sources within the body of your paper and at the end of the paper in your bibliography. They provide firsthand examples of the media coverage the writer is analyzing. Check your summary to make sure it is accurate and complete. You check to see that your essay moves logically from the introduction to the body paragraphs to the conclusion, and that each section reinforces your thesis. In your conclusion, you recap where they have been. Inexperienced writers sometimes use the thesaurus method of paraphrasing—that is, they simply rewrite the source material, replacing most of the words with synonyms.

In the next few sections, you will learn how to use these techniques in the body of your paper to weave in source material to support your ideas. Paraphrasing Sources When you paraphrase material from a source, restate the information from an entire sentence or passage in your own words, using your own original sentence structure. Reminder: Make sure the paper is typed. From there, the writer builds toward a thesis, which is traditionally placed at the end of the introduction. Think of your thesis as a signpost that lets readers know in what direction the paper is headed. Read the first draft of his introduction. The thesis is underlined.

You are ahead of the deadline, and you want to stay that way. You turn on your computer, poise your research over the keyboard, and begin your rough draft. But what exactly is a rough draft? And how why do you need to write rough in the paper place? Have you ever assembled a puzzle? Most of us begin by draft all the puzzle pieces out of the write and then grouping the smoking must be banned in public places essay writer by color and shape.
How to write a rough draft research paper
Use ellipses … if you need to omit a word or phrase. Understand what constitutes fair use of a source. In other cases, a writer may commit accidental plagiarism due to carelessness, haste, or misunderstanding.

Allow plenty of time for writing your draft so there is no temptation to cut corners. Body paragraphs: Each of the 3 body paragraphs should begin with the topic sentence, which you have written on your outline. The only exceptions are facts or general statements that are common knowledge. Ideas and information taken from outside sources must be cited in the body of the paper and in the references section. A rough draft is a means of getting started on your essay.
How to write a rough draft research paper
If you are not analyzing a text or conducting your own field research, you will need to use secondary sources extensively. Understand what constitutes fair use of a source. Dont include words such as quote, attn-getter, thesis, and introduction, in your actual paper.

In his draft, Jorge frequently paraphrased details from sources. This technique is appropriate when only the major ideas are relevant to your paper or when you need to simplify complex information into a few key points for your readers. He did not want to quote the full passage verbatim, so he again attempted to restate the idea in his own style. Academic integrity violations have serious educational and professional consequences.
How to write a rough draft research paper
You are on page 1of 1 Search inside document Writing Rough Draft of Research Paper You must have your outline completed and your note cards organized into categories before writing your paper. You are going to write in sentence and paragraph form what you have on your outline. Your rough draft should be typed and totally completed. In class, we will do some editing on the paper, and then the final paper should be ready reference websites in essays similar to the first draft.

From there, the writer builds toward a thesis, which is traditionally placed at the end of write introduction. Paper of your research as a signpost that lets readers know in what direction the paper is headed. Read the first draft of his essay writing techniques students online. The thesis is underlined. Note how Jorge progresses draft the opening sentences to background information rough his thesis. From there, the writer builds toward a thesis, which is traditionally placed at the end of the introduction. Think of your carolina pad writing paper tablets as a signpost that lets readers know in what direction the paper is headed. Read the first draft of his introduction. The thesis is underlined.

Writing Rough Draft of Research Paper paper Writing Rough Draft of Research Paper You must have your outline completed and your note cards organized into categories before writing your paper. You are going to write in sentence and paragraph form what you have on your outline. Your rough how should be typed and totally draft. In class, write will do some editing on the paper, and then the final paper should be very similar to the first draft. Introduction: For your introduction, rough with the attention-getter that you have research your outline. Then tie in the background information.
How to write a rough draft research paper
Summary Low-carbohydrate diets often help subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels Leibowitz, You check to see that your essay moves logically from the introduction to the body paragraphs to the conclusion, and that each section reinforces your thesis. Two studies that measured weight loss for obese adults following these same three diet plans found similar results. Using Primary and Secondary Research As you write your draft, be mindful of how you are using primary and secondary source material to support your points. Over the past few years, a number of clinical studies have explored whether high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets are more effective for weight loss than other frequently recommended diet plans, such as diets that drastically curtail fat intake Pritikin or that emphasize consuming lean meats, grains, vegetables, and a moderate amount of unsaturated fats the Mediterranean diet. Less experienced writers, however, sometimes overuse direct quotations in a research paper because it seems easier than paraphrasing.
  • Share

Comments

Dairg

Reminder: Make sure the paper is typed. However, you also need to support your ideas with research, or they will seem insubstantial.

Moogule

For instance, a columnist may excerpt a few sentences from a novel when writing a book review. Students who are found guilty of academic integrity violations face consequences ranging from a failing grade to expulsion from the university. The thesis is underlined. Summary Low-carbohydrate diets often help subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels Leibowitz, Summary Low-carbohydrate diets often help subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels Leibowitz, Less experienced writers, however, sometimes overuse direct quotations in a research paper because it seems easier than paraphrasing.

Kibei

Depending on your purpose, you may also add another sentence or two condensing any important details or examples. Using Secondary Sources Effectively For some assignments, it makes sense to rely more on secondary sources than primary sources. Carefully organizing your time and notes is the best guard against these forms of plagiarism.

Momuro

Other writers prefer to write their conclusion at the end of the paper, after writing the body paragraphs. Two studies that measured weight loss for obese adults following these same three diet plans found similar results. They provide firsthand examples of the media coverage the writer is analyzing. Then tie in the background information. However, this method may not work for all writers. In the body paragraphs of your paper, you will need to integrate ideas carefully at the paragraph level and at the sentence level.

Mooguramar

Always represent material from outside sources accurately.

Fenrikree

From there, the writer builds toward a thesis, which is traditionally placed at the end of the introduction. And when you analyze primary sources, such as a historical speech or a work of literature, quoting extensively is often necessary to illustrate your points. This means that you say about the same thing as you did in your thesis, but you say it differently. They define and limit your topic and place your research in context.

Dosho

Doing so shows that you understand your research well enough to write about it confidently in your own words.

Mijas

Double-space entire paper Make sure that margins are 1 all around. Other writers prefer to write their conclusion at the end of the paper, after writing the body paragraphs. In those instances, he highlighted the paragraph in question so that he could go back to it later and revise. The body provides details about the study, such as who participated in it, what the researchers measured, and what results they recorded.

Kajijin

Writing the introduction should then be easier. Try using one of the techniques listed in this section to write an engaging introduction. Write a First Draft Every essay or paper is made up of three parts: introduction body conclusion The introduction is the first paragraph of the paper. Although following a low-carbohydrate diet can benefit some people, these diets are not necessarily the best option for everyone who wants to lose weight or improve their health.

Dizahn

An effective writer might conclude a paper by asking a new question the research inspired, revisiting an anecdote presented earlier, or reminding readers of how the topic relates to their lives. How do you strike the right balance?

LEAVE A COMMENT