The History of the English language 2. The changes of the English Language 3. The main influences on the way we speak 4. The uses and variations of English worldwide 5. Other forms of Communication 6.
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During this period many changes occurred that may be noted in nearly every aspect of the language: in its phonology, its semantics and in its lexicon, where many Old English words were replaced by borrowed items from the French language. It is also characteristic of borrowings to be non-motivated semantically. The 16th century borrowings, for instance, were mostly technical terms and the common man had little to do with them. Beal and Philip A.
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English Language Essay
Smith has pointed out in his book "The English Language" that "the main additions to the English language, additions so great as to change its character in a fundamental way, were from French, first of all from the Northern French of Norman conquerors and then from the literary and learned speech of Paris. For example, the Germanic tribes in the first few centuries A. A good knowledge of French would mark a person of higher standing giving him a certain social prestige probably many people become bilingual and had a fair command of both languages. The two stages can also be distinguished by their semantic fields.
Polite usage was something quite separate from ordinary or colloquial usage. The Norman Conquest made French the language of the official class in England. Waniba the jester in Scott's "Ivanhoe" points out how the living animals like ox, sheep, chalf, swine and deer have continued to bear their English names even after the conquest while the flesh of these animals used as food has been referred to by French words like 'beef', 'mutton', 'pork', 'bacon', etc.
German Borrowings In The English Language Essay
In America, generations of immigrants are constantly incorporating aspects of their traditions into everyday life, e. It may be interesting to mention some facts showing how the transition came about. The Expository Writing of C. This left the vast majority of English people English.
The two stages can also be distinguished by the origins of their loan words. In some cases one can no longer decide whether the Germanic or the Romance form of a word has survived into Modern English. Here we can categorize the influence with the help of percentage we have for the different languages. The large-scale influx of French loads can be attributed to several causes. Assimilation of French words.
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Order now The circumstances and the need for loan words: Researchers of the history of old words in paper English language writing observed that cultural influences have made it possible to loan the words from other language. Another reason for the increased number of loan words texture the global approach of the speakers of English language french natives of the English speaking countries. These two aspects have been found loanwords be the most influential to the need for loan words from english languages. First, the cultural influences can be described as the wide spread invasion activities by Britain throughout the world. Writing such invasions, the British found the need to learn languages of the foreign countries that essay invaded and these words were later assimilated into background English language.
In the dalton school college matriculation essay write time the difference between the two strands of French essay Norman and Central — became more and more diffuse. Certainly there is no question nowadays of for being able intuitively to distinguish between the two. With college later Central French borrowings this is obvious given the sectors of society where the loans occurred see next section. The general split is between colloquial native words and more formal Romance terms and can be seen clearly in word pairs like forgive and pardon. Other examples are begin : commence; hearty : cordial; happiness how felicity; help : aid; hide : conceal; meal : repast only literary nowadays.
Conclusion 1. Introduction The dates for the beginning and end of the Middle English period are rather controversial. But many linguists do agree that by certain changes to the English language were sufficiently well established to justify french use of the adjective middle to designate the language in what was actually a phase of transition from the English of the early Middle Ages - Old English - to that of the first printed books at the end of the 15th century. During this period many changes occurred that may be noted in nearly every aspect of the language: in loanwords phonology, its semantics and in its lexicon, where many Old English words were replaced by borrowed items from the French language. English although the French influence did not cease with the end of writing 15th century, due to its size of merely seven pages this term paper will concentrate on the Middle English period. Starting with a short introduction essay the historical background of the French Influence on the English language, there will be examples of the borrowed vocabulary, explanations why they were borrowed and how they can be further distinguished into loan words from Norman and Central French.
Main patterns of influence[ edit ] Some words from Old French college jumpstart scholarship essay contest been imported again french Middle French or Modern Frenchbut have generally taken a more restrictive or essay meaning the second time. Note that the word in French has kept the general meaning: e. Even when not imported several times in different forms, loanwords from French generally have a more restrictive or specialised meaning than in French: e. In some cases, the Online shopping disadvantages essay writer loanwords has been more conservative than the French one with English French words, at least in spelling if not writing pronunciation: e.
The major changes happening in history affecting Modern English include the seventeenth century colonization of North America America has close ties with France in the history of the development of the North American continent , industrial and technology revolution, and an immigration surge into America. The domination of the French language in England came to an end in the source of the 14th c. From the French the English came to know about mustard and vinegard. In some dialects the gap in the written tradition spanned almost two hundred years. Originally the English adverb full was used as an intensifier and is still found in fixed phrases like You know full well.
The Norman Conquest changed the language situation of the uppermost parts of the upper echelons only. Then they undergo assimilation,each sound in the borrowed word is substituted by the corresponding sound of the borrwing language. The majority of these borrowing are fully assimilated in English in their pronunciation, grammar ,spel- ling and can be hardly distinguished from native words. Completely assimilated borrowings are not felt as foreign words in the language,cf.
French loans from the opening of the period to approximately the Restoration reveal that both of the aforementioned motives for borrowing are valid. He doubled the consonants after short vowels in closed syllables and used special semicircular marks over short vowels in open syllables. Of course once a language borrows words, the words are never returned, so the adopting of loanwords and process of borrowing are simply metaphors; there is no actual process of lending happening.
Here one has an instance of the French form complementing the English one. Following the Norman Conquest the former Celtic kingdoms fell under Norman recluse. English was everywhere, French was mainly in London, at court, in law and in the church. The language that people wrote was mainly French. After the influence of Central French was predominant in England. Their choice was not always a matter of practical consideration, coining new words for new concepts, but a matter of stylistic concern, providing richness to the lexis, known as copia verborum, which was considered the hallmark of a literary language.
Semantic differentiation has frequently developed which may have neutralised any previous distinction in register: wedding : marriage, ask : demand. When those who had been educated under the new conditions tried to write English,the literary conventions of the past generation had no hold upon them;they could write no otherwise than as they spoke. However, in one aspect this borrowing helps the English language as an international language but also it helps to join the multicultural specifications and words approaches into one language.
Cooking words provide us with an exemplar of morphological differences between French and English words, i.