The word for "son" is "bar" in Aramaic but "ben" is Phoenician and Hebrew. A major technological breakthrough that enabled mass accessibility to the printed word was the invention of the Gutenberg Press One example of this, is the orthodox narrative of modern human history shared by geologists and archaeologists around the world, which tells us that the first technologically advanced human civilizations started in Mesopotamia around 3,, BC.
However, a series of evidence brought forth by two science skeptics and scientists suggest that the current narrative of our history could be inaccurate The oldest mathematical object was found in Swaziland Africa. The oldest example of arithmetic was found in Zaire. The year old, Moscow papyrus, contains geometry, from the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, Egypt was the cradle of mathematics.
The great Greek mathematicians, including Pythagoras, Thales, and Exodus all acquired much of their mathematics from Egypt, including the notion of zero. This paper will discuss a brief history of mathematics in Africa From the Phoenicians in Mesopotamia to the Mayans in Central America, technological advancements and complex theories drove the ancient civilizations ahead.
Great thinkers from that period like Socrates other great thinkers left huge marks on the literary world. Great scientists like Copernicus other great scientists developed theories that provided the foundations for more modern thought Unsurprisingly, with such social intrigue come media representations that further draw individual interests as has been seen through movies like The Pirates of the Caribbean film series as well as young students who seek basic knowledge through the written word.
As a child, there are many novelettes created by a variety of authors and companies to provide basic scholarly background information concerning a variety of subjects Odysseus is the king of the kingdom of Ithaca who had to embark on a 20 year ocean voyage back to his home.
The Roman Empire existed throughout a hundreds-years timeline, officially since 27 BC under the reign of Emperor Augustus. In this period, these events happened orderly, from the rise of Rome in the Italian peninsula that led to creating the Roman republic, the conflicts with the Carthage Empire, the conquest of the Mediterranean and it ended with the fall of the Roman Republic The first homo sapiens to appear in the fertile land of East Africa were nurtured from her bosom; the wisdom and strength that is characteristic of the black woman today is not a recent acquisition but qualities that were honed over thousand of years.
Every woman on this earth has mitochondrial DNA mitochondrial DNA is the DNA transferred from mother to child and the only genetic material that stands the test of time from Lucy, the small black woman found in the Awash Valley in Ethiopia In his remarkably detailed account, Josephus describes the exquisiteness and majesty of the harbor of Sebastos in the city of Caesarea Maritima.
The harbor was built with such genius and beauty that, despite the complexity of the landscape, the structure seemed effortless The country of France originally known by the name of Gaul or Gallia is a country with a rich history and culture.
The Celts originally occupied and dominated that lands of Gaul. He won a decisive victory over the Celtic tribes that once dominated the area.
This area became the first province of the Roman Empire Lisbon, the capital city of Portugal, has a rich Portuguese culture and history, so there is almost always somewhere to visit or something to eat to fill your senses and the food will top your experience and making Lisbon truly great. If you are bored, museums, clubs, historic sites and many more are at your fingertips to enjoy and visit These ships were the main naval vessel of the Scandinavians. Their boats were built for speed due to their shallow draft hull design.
During that time these boats were very intimidating. Today, however, we have boats that have reached over miles per hour and ships that are 1, ft. After hearing that you can make a boat out of cardboard you may be wondering why boats even float. The reason a boat can float, is based on the gravitational force and the buoyancy force You might picture a dolphin trainer, or maybe you see a man swimming with whales and sharks deep in the middle of the ocean.
The field of marine biology is the study of aquatic organisms, their behaviors, and their interactions with the environment. It is considered the most unknown and exciting fields of oceanography.
The Phoenicians and the Greeks are responsible for the earliest known studies of marine biology. Advertise Here There were ingots of copper and tin, as well as storage vessels which are thought to have contained unguents, wine and oil, glass, gold and silver jewellry, precious objects of faience glazed earthenware , painted pottery tools, and even scrap metal.
Miles, 28 Because their goods were so highly prized, Phoenicia was often spared the kinds of military incursions suffered by other regions of the Near East. Around B. The rough shape of the Apennine Mountains allowed many of these small tribes to exist separately However, one fact is for certain: the origin of Greek alphabet does not mean the origin of the writing system to the Greek language.
Originally fashioned by ethnic Phoenician groups, the source alphabet is connected to the Ugaritic groups of writing systems that developed around the city of Ugarit Powell The Odyssey and The Iliad influenced Greek culture, education, and morality.
Little is known about Homer and many scholars question whether he existed at all. At school teachers do not explain to students the way writing began. Instead, they present writing as something which has always existed. In this way, teachers lose the opportunity to describe a charming history which could enchant children and increase their desire to learn this ancient and refined technique of expression and communication.
Not only children, but also many adults take writing for granted and they do not think about the complex process that brought it into existence.
If you are interested in knowing something more on how writing began, follow me in the next paragraphs, where we will go back in time for thousands of years and we will also do some experiments on writing.
The birth of writing is a long and very interesting process and I'm convinced that by the end of this article, you will want to know more about this topic. The invention of writing happened in an independent way in different parts of the world and it followed the same fundamental steps. At the beginning, to indicate something people used its picture or a conventional sign. Then they moved on to a phonetic writing system based on the mechanism of the rebus, then they went to a syllabic writing and only at the end did they arrive at alphabetic writing.
Before writing began During the upper Palaeolithic, , years ago, people started by drawing graffiti and paintings on rocks and walls of caves. It is more or less from the same period that the oldest fragments of bones and pebbles with notches date from. Unfortunately, we do not know with certainty what was the purpose of these beautiful images of animals painted on caves, nor the purpose of repeated signs. The paintings of animals were probably connected to magical rites to foster hunting, while it seems the notches engraved on bones and stones were a way to count something, as for example the days which pass, the lunar months, or the prey captured.
Multiple origins There is not a unique origin of writing; it was independently born in different parts of the world. It seems the first people who wrote were the Sumerians and the Egyptians around BC.
It is not clear which of those two peoples invented writing first, although it seems the Egyptian writing had some Sumerian influence and not vice versa. They were peoples who had known agriculture for some millennia and who felt the need for a system of notation for agricultural products.
Usually, sovereigns imposed taxes on their own subjects as agricultural products. They used these resources in order to pay for the construction of palaces and temples, to maintain the army, the court officials, the court, etc.
Also in the trade exchanges people felt the need to be allowed to annotate goods. The same is valid for the offers which were brought to the temples.
The invention of writing closely followed many other innovations typical of the Neolithic age, such as the construction of cities, the use of bronze, the invention of the wheel, the potter's wheel and the loom for weaving.
In this period, agriculture and breeding spread and it was always more important to be able to indicate goods and persons in account documents and in commercial transactions.
Let us take some steps backwards. Slow progress In Syria, 10, years ago, people used clay tokens of different shapes to indicate agricultural products. For example, a token with a shape of a coin and with a cross carved on it indicated a sheep; a conical-shaped token meant a measure of corn, an egg-shaped indicated an amphora of oil, etc.
To distinguish among sheep, ram and lamb, the tokens were carved with different marks. To mean 20 sheep, people needed to use 20 tokens. This system continued to be used for some millennia. In BC, the officials of the token stores used to avoid dispersing the tokens, by placing them inside hollow clay and sealed balls bulla on which they later started drawing the token it contained. After years, the token were abolished and the hollow balls were replaced with a flat clay tablet on which they simply carved the shapes of the tokens.
By the late eighth century B. Sea traders from Phoenicia and Carthage a Phoenician colony traditionally founded in B. However, much of our knowledge about the Phoenicians during the Iron Age ca.
For example, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, Phoenician sailors, at the request of the pharaoh Necho II r.
Located on the east coast of the Mediterranean, where Israel lies today, the Phoenicians were able to trade with virtually all of the Mediterranean nations Although little is known about the ancient civilization, it is known that the government was, at least in part, a monarchy.
After hearing that you can make a boat out of cardboard you may be wondering why boats even float. If you think that when we are reading we hear a voice in our mind, you can well imagine how this surprising phenomenon could be considered divine in those times. The Tyrians killed the envoys and threw their bodies over the walls.
Later on, the phonograms made up of only one letter were called "alphabetic signs". Both found a city near the Tiber river and chose a hill to begin their own settlement. Odysseus is the king of the kingdom of Ithaca who had to embark on a 20 year ocean voyage back to his home. Even the alphabet that we use today is derived from the ancient Greek alphabet that was developed from the Phoenicians, who emerged in history around BC.
Sasson, pp. This chapter provides a summary of those topics considered to be the most relevant to the research.
The Alawi make up about 12 percent of the population and its' teachings were brought by Al Khasibi to Syria in the second part of the tenth century.
In the 9th century BCE the Aramaeans had adopted the Phoenician alphabet, added symbols for the initial "aleph" and for long vowels.
The Egyptian influence is often especially prominent in the art but was constantly evolving as the political and economic relations between Egypt and the Phoenician cities fluctuated.