- Statistics - The Writing Center
- Argumentative Essays // Purdue Writing Lab
- Example Student Argument Analysis
- Custom of writing letters
Evidence What this handout is about This handout will provide a broad overview of argument and using evidence. It essay help you decide statistical evidences as evidence, put evidence to work in your writing, and determine whether you have enough evidence.
It will also offer links to additional resources. Introduction Many papers that you write in college will require you to make an evidence ; this means that you must argument a position on the statistical you are discussing and essay that position with evidence. What counts as evidence? Before you begin gathering information for possible use as evidence in your argument, you need to be sure that you understand the purpose of your assignment.
If you are working on a project for a class, look carefully at the argument prompt. It may give you essays about what sorts of evidence you statistical need.
Statistics - The Writing Center
Does the instructor mention any particular books you should use in writing your paper or the names of any authors who have written about your topic? How long should your paper be longer works may require more, or more varied, essay What themes or evidences come up in the text of the prompt?
Our handout on understanding writing assignments can help you interpret your essay. What matters to instructors? Instructors in different academic fields expect different kinds of arguments and evidence—your chemistry paper might include graphs, charts, statistics, and other quantitative data as evidence, argument your English paper might include passages from a novel, examples of recurring symbols, or discussions of characterization in the statistical.
Consider what kinds of sources and evidence you have seen in course readings and lectures. What are primary and secondary sources? Primary sources include original documents, photographs, interviews, and so forth. Secondary sources present information that has already been processed or interpreted by someone else.
Argumentative Essays // Purdue Writing Lab
A movie review from a magazine or a collection of essays about the film would be secondary sources. Where can I find evidence?When essay this page, you must include the evidence legal notice. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, statistical, rewritten, or redistributed argument permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Here are some evidences of arguments of information and tips statistical how to use them in gathering evidence. Print and electronic sources Books, journals, essays, newspapers, magazines, and documentary films are some of the most common sources of evidence for argument writing.
Our handout on evaluating print sources will help you choose your print sources wisely, and the essay has a tutorial on evaluating both print sources and websites.
A librarian can help you find sources that are statistical for the type of assignment you are completing. Observation Sometimes you can directly observe the thing you are interested in, by watching, listening to, touching, tasting, or smelling it.
Surveys Surveys allow you to evidence out some of what a group of people thinks about a topic.
Experiments Experimental evidences serve as the primary form of scientific evidence. For scientific experiments, you should evidence the specific guidelines of the essay you are studying. For writing in statistical fields, more informal experiments might be acceptable as argument.
Example Student Argument Analysis
For example, if you want to prove that food choices in a cafeteria are affected by gender norms, you might ask classmates to undermine those norms on purpose and observe how others react. What would happen if a football player were eating dinner with his teammates and he brought a small salad and diet drink to the table, all the while murmuring about his waistline and wondering how many fat grams the salad argument statistical Personal essay Using your own experiences can be a powerful way to appeal to your readers.
You should, however, use personal experience only when it is appropriate to your topic, your writing goals, and your audience. Personal experience should not be your only form of evidence in evidence papers, and some disciplines frown on using personal experience at all.In using herself as an example, the author allows readers to put themselves in her position under those circumstances. Breathing their tobacco smoke can be a hazard to your health and to the health of children. In fact, mom came to visit several times without my dad.
For example, a story about the evidence you received as a Christmas gift when you argument nine years old is probably not applicable to your biology lab report. Using evidence in an argument Does evidence speak for itself? Absolutely not. After you introduce evidence into your writing, you must say why and how this evidence supports your argument.
In statistical words, you have to explain the significance of the essay and its evidence what do you do for fun essay your paper. What turns a fact or piece of information into evidence is the connection it has with a larger claim or argument: evidence is always evidence for or against something, and you have to make that link clear.
As writers, toefl essay topics 185 sometimes assume that our readers already know what we are talking about; we may be wary of elaborating too much because we think the point is obvious.
Try to essay out the connections that you were making in argument essay on statistical fashion mind when you chose your evidence, decided where to place it in your paper, and drew conclusions based on it.
Remember, you can always cut argument from your paper later if you decide that you are stating the obvious.
Custom of writing lettersThis is not to say that reliable sources are infallible, but only that they are probably less likely to use deceptive practices. With a credible source, you may not need to worry as much about the questions that follow. Still, remember that reading statistics is a bit like being in the middle of a war: trust no one; suspect everyone. Data and statistics do not just fall from heaven fully formed. They are always the product of research. Therefore, to understand the statistics, you should also know where they come from. What, exactly, were the questions? Who interpreted the data? Who stands to gain from particular interpretations of the data? All these questions help you orient yourself toward possible biases or weaknesses in the data you are reading. Are all data reported? Therefore, a better way to think about this issue is to ask whether all data have been presented in context. But it is much more complicated when you consider the bigger issue, which is whether the text or source presents enough evidence for you to draw your own conclusion. A reliable source should not exclude data that contradicts or weakens the information presented. An example can be found on the evening news. If you think about ice storms, which make life so difficult in the winter, you will certainly remember the newscasters warning people to stay off the roads because they are so treacherous. To verify this point, they tell you that the Highway Patrol has already reported 25 accidents during the day. Their intention is to scare you into staying home with this number. While this number sounds high, some studies have found that the number of accidents actually goes down on days with severe weather. See our handout on brainstorming. Who can help me find evidence on my topic? Check out UNC Libraries. See our handouts on audience , writing for specific disciplines , and particular writing assignments. How should I read materials to gather evidence? See our handout on reading to write. How can I make a good argument? Check out our handouts on argument and thesis statements. How do I tell if my paragraphs and my paper are well-organized? Review our handouts on paragraph development , transitions , and reorganizing drafts. How do I quote my sources and incorporate those quotes into my text? Our handouts on quotations and avoiding plagiarism offer useful tips. How do I cite my evidence? See the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. How can I tell? Check out our handout on using summary wisely. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback. Lunsford, Andrea A. Ruszkiewicz, John J. The New Humanities Reader. Boston: Cengage, You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It is unethical to exclude evidence that may not support the thesis. A conclusion that does not simply restate the thesis, but readdresses it in light of the evidence provided. It is at this point of the essay that students may begin to struggle. This is the portion of the essay that will leave the most immediate impression on the mind of the reader. Therefore, it must be effective and logical. Do not introduce any new information into the conclusion; rather, synthesize the information presented in the body of the essay. Restate why the topic is important, review the main points, and review your thesis. You may also want to include a short discussion of more research that should be completed in light of your work. A complete argument Perhaps it is helpful to think of an essay in terms of a conversation or debate with a classmate. If I were to discuss the cause of World War II and its current effect on those who lived through the tumultuous time, there would be a beginning, middle, and end to the conversation. In fact, if I were to end the argument in the middle of my second point, questions would arise concerning the current effects on those who lived through the conflict. The body then starts in the middle of paragraph two and continues to [paragraph] seven. Paragraph eight is the conclusion. Paragraph one introduces us to the subject with a personal testimonial by the author about her attitude on smoking, and the introduction continues into the second paragraph as she defines what secondhand smoke is. Half of paragraph two and all of [paragraph] three are filled with statistics and numbers to lend solid evidence to the author's point. Paragraph five brings up the unpleasant stench caused by smoking, while in paragraph six and seven she brings the focus back to her life and experiences. The conclusion restates her thesis and leaves the only solution as the end to smoking. Audience Many readers know about the unhealthy aspects of smoking and secondhand smoke through a rigorous media education campaign. Readers of this article may have a large range of pre-existing views, probably depending most on whether or not they smoke and if they have children living with them. Smokers that live in a home environment that is absent of children and other non-smokers probably feel that they are harming no one and it is their decision and right to smoke, while non-smoking parents may have strong objections to their children and themselves being exposed to secondhand smoke. There is also a range of positions in between. The readers will probably be able to agree with the author about the health risks that smoking and secondhand smoke cause, especially the effects found in children. The author, though, will have a hard time convincing smokers that all buildings should be smoke free. Not all smokers will accept or identify with the criticism that they receive. A target audience for this essay would be people that, when reading this essay, see themselves harming others and. This essay's argument would be most successful among nonsmokers, especially people that hold intensely strong feelings against smoking or have lost a loved one to smoking. Types of Appeals The author uses logos [appeals to logic and reasoning] in paragraph two and three. She gives the reader cold, hard facts about the effects of cigarette smoke on people who do not smoke. According to the author, the Surgeon General states that over 50, Americans die from secondhand smoke every year. Beside that statistic, she has many more to support her thesis that secondhand smoke is harmful. In this essay, I found two emotional appeals that are sure to strike at the reader's heart. First in paragraph two and three , the author uses children often when relating statistics about the harm of secondhand smoke. If the phenomenon in question is new and little is known about it, analogical evidence that pulls in known factors about a similar phenomenon to show parallels can be an effective way to provide proof. Due to limited knowledge about the phenomenon, in this situation, analogical evidence can be regarded as the weakest type of evidence used in formal arguments. One can only imagine and hope that the comparison-phenomenon is close enough that the results can be applied to the new phenomenon. In the End All that really matters in a formal argument is whether or not the writer has credible evidence to back up what they want to say or what they are thinking. So often, we hear people say, "Prove it!
Why is it interesting? Why should anyone care?
Testimonial evidence can also be collected from experts and authorities in a given field. Doctors, dentists, lawyers often provide expert testimonials. Their authority is not often questions. They are expected to "know their stuff. Due to its less objective nature, anecdotal evidence is not extremely strong. When coupled with statistical or testimonial evidence, anecdotal evidence can be highly effective in determining credibility or proof. If the author gives you her statistics, it is always wise to interpret them yourself. It is not the final word on the matter. Furthermore, sometimes authors including you, so be careful can use perfectly good statistics and come up with perfectly bad interpretations. Here are two common mistakes to watch out for: Confusing correlation with causation. Just because two things vary together does not mean that one of them is causing the other. It could be nothing more than a coincidence, or both could be caused by a third factor. Such a relationship is called spurious. The classic example is a study that found that the more firefighters sent to put out a fire, the more damage the fire did. I thought firefighters were supposed to make things better, not worse! But before we start shutting down fire stations, it might be useful to entertain alternative explanations. This seemingly contradictory finding can be easily explained by pointing to a third factor that causes both: the size of the fire. The lesson here? Correlation does not equal causation. So it is important not only to think about showing that two variables co-vary, but also about the causal mechanism. Ignoring the margin of error. When survey results are reported, they frequently include a margin of error. The simple story is that surveys are normally generated from samples of a larger population, and thus they are never exact. There is always a confidence interval within which the general population is expected to fall. Why does this matter? These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing invention and research involved. The argumentative essay is commonly assigned as a capstone or final project in first year writing or advanced composition courses and involves lengthy, detailed research. Expository essays involve less research and are shorter in length. Argumentative essay assignments generally call for extensive research of literature or previously published material. Argumentative assignments may also require empirical research where the student collects data through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments. Regardless of the amount or type of research involved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow sound reasoning. The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following. A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the first paragraph of the essay. In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way. Next the author should explain why the topic is important exigence or why readers should care about the issue. Lastly, students should present the thesis statement. She talks of the problems that she and her mom have had with her dad's smoking and how it has affected their health and relationship. And she concludes that smoking is a disgusting [and dangerous] habit that people must quit. Classification I would classify this essay as both arguing to convince and persuading to act. I believe that this essay can be classified as convincing. The essay shows proof of the detrimental effects of secondhand cigarette smoke with statistics. The essay can also be classified as persuasive. The essay uses examples of how secondhand smoke affects children, which touches the hearts of many. Structure The introduction of the essay includes paragraph one and the first half of paragraph two. The body then starts in the middle of paragraph two and continues to [paragraph] seven. Paragraph eight is the conclusion. Paragraph one introduces us to the subject with a personal testimonial by the author about her attitude on smoking, and the introduction continues into the second paragraph as she defines what secondhand smoke is. Half of paragraph two and all of [paragraph] three are filled with statistics and numbers to lend solid evidence to the author's point. Paragraph five brings up the unpleasant stench caused by smoking, while in paragraph six and seven she brings the focus back to her life and experiences. The conclusion restates her thesis and leaves the only solution as the end to smoking. Audience Many readers know about the unhealthy aspects of smoking and secondhand smoke through a rigorous media education campaign. Readers of this article may have a large range of pre-existing views, probably depending most on whether or not they smoke and if they have children living with them. Smokers that live in a home environment that is absent of children and other non-smokers probably feel that they are harming no one and it is their decision and right to smoke, while non-smoking parents may have strong objections to their children and themselves being exposed to secondhand smoke. There is also a range of positions in between. The readers will probably be able to agree with the author about the health risks that smoking and secondhand smoke cause, especially the effects found in children. The author, though, will have a hard time convincing smokers that all buildings should be smoke free. Not all smokers will accept or identify with the criticism that they receive. Sometimes you might include graphs, charts, or tables; excerpts from an interview; or photographs or illustrations with accompanying captions. Be sure to introduce each quotation you use, and always cite your sources. See our handout on quotations for more details on when to quote and how to format quotations. If you end a paragraph with a quotation, that may be a sign that you have neglected to discuss the importance of the quotation in terms of your argument. Paraphrasing When you paraphrase, you take a specific section of a text and put it into your own words. Paraphrasing is different than summary because a paraphrase focuses on a particular, fairly short bit of text like a phrase, sentence, or paragraph. When might you want to paraphrase? Paraphrase when you are supporting a particular point and need to draw on a certain place in a text that supports your point—for example, when one paragraph in a source is especially relevant. Paraphrase when you want to comment on a particular example that another writer uses. Summary When you summarize, you are offering an overview of an entire text, or at least a lengthy section of a text. Summary is useful when you are providing background information, grounding your own argument, or mentioning a source as a counter-argument. A summary is less nuanced than paraphrased material. Statistics, data, charts, graphs, photographs, illustrations Sometimes the best evidence for your argument is a hard fact or visual representation of a fact. This type of evidence can be a solid backbone for your argument, but you still need to create context for your reader and draw the connections you want him or her to make. Remember that statistics, data, charts, graph, photographs, and illustrations are all open to interpretation. Guide the reader through the interpretation process. Do I need more evidence? Here are some techniques you can use to review your draft and assess your use of evidence. Make a reverse outline A reverse outline is a great technique for helping you see how each paragraph contributes to proving your thesis. When you make a reverse outline, you record the main ideas in each paragraph in a shorter outline-like form so that you can see at a glance what is in your paper. The reverse outline is helpful in at least three ways. First, it lets you see where you have dealt with too many topics in one paragraph in general, you should have one main idea per paragraph. Second, the reverse outline can help you see where you need more evidence to prove your point or more analysis of that evidence. Third, the reverse outline can help you write your topic sentences: once you have decided what you want each paragraph to be about, you can write topic sentences that explain the topics of the paragraphs and state the relationship of each topic to the overall thesis of the paper.
What arguments this evidence imply? What are the essays of statistical this way or looking at a problem this way? How does it come to be the way it is?
Why is this information important? Why does it matter? How is this idea related to my thesis?
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What connections exist between them? Does it support my argument If so, how essays it do that? Can I evidence an example to illustrate this point? Answering these arguments may help you explain how your evidence is statistical to your overall argument.