Interest Groups And Mass Media Topic Essay

Meaning 09.12.2019

How Do Special Interest Groups and Mass Media Influence Democracy, Public Opinion, and the Political Process in America?

And this Term Paper in essay format. American media is pervasive in nearly every aspect of society today. Newspapers, groups, online Web mediae, television, mass, and film all create a sense of commonality, and often a sense of how to behave, think, and react to social and societal interests.

Today, Americans rely on a variety of media for and of their news, information, and values, whether they know it or not. While this may seem like a recent occurrence, experts and researchers have been seeing this trend in essay influence and decades.

They have transformed the political media system, and redefined the role of journalists. They have redefined the way elections are contested, and how citizens engage in politics. The rise of new media has complicated the political media system. Legacy media consisting of established mass media institutions that predate the Internet, such as newspapers, radio shows, and television news programs, coexist with new media that are the outgrowth of technological innovation. While legacy media maintain relatively stable formats, the litany of new media, which includes websites, blogs, video-sharing platforms, digital apps, and social media, are continually expanding in innovative ways. Mass media designed to deliver general interest news to broad audiences have been joined by niche sources that narrowcast to discrete users Stroud, New media can relay information directly to individuals without the intervention of editorial or institutional gatekeepers, which are intrinsic to legacy forms. Thus, new media have introduced an increased level of instability and unpredictability into the political communication process. The relationship between legacy media and new media is symbiotic. Legacy media have incorporated new media into their reporting strategies. They distribute material across an array of old and new communication platforms. They rely on new media sources to meet the ever-increasing demand for content. Despite competition from new media, the audiences for traditional media remain robust, even if they are not as formidable as in the past. Readers of the print edition of The New York Times and viewers of the nightly network news programs far outnumber those accessing the most popular political news websites Wired Staff, Cable and network television news remain the primary sources of political information for people over the age of thirty Mitchell and Holcomb, Consequently, new media rely on their legacy counterparts to gain legitimacy and popularize their content. Ideally, the media serve several essential roles in a democratic society. Their primary purpose is to inform the public, providing citizens with the information needed to make thoughtful decisions about leadership and policy. The media act as watchdogs checking government actions. They set the agenda for public discussion of issues, and provide a forum for political expression. They also facilitate community building by helping people to find common causes, identify civic groups, and work toward solutions to societal problems. The diversity of content disseminated by new media has created opportunities such as the ability for more voices to be heard. New media have the potential to satisfy these textbook functions. They provide unprecedented access to information, and can reach even disinterested audience members through personalized, peer-to-peer channels, like Facebook. As average people join forces with the established press to perform the watchdog role, public officials are subject to greater scrutiny. Issues and events that might be outside the purview of mainstream journalists can be brought into prominence by ordinary citizens. New media can foster community building that transcends physical boundaries through their extensive networking capabilities. Although legacy media coverage of political events correlates with increased political engagement among the mass public, mainstream journalists do not believe that encouraging participation is their responsibility Hayes and Lawless, However, new media explicitly seek to directly engage the public in political activities, such as voting, contacting public officials, volunteering in their communities, and taking part in protest movements. At the same time, the new media era has acerbated trends that undercut the ideal aims of a democratic press. The media disseminate a tremendous amount of political content, but much of the material is trivial, unreliable, and polarizing. The watchdog role pre-new media had been performed largely by trained journalists who, under the best of circumstances, focused on uncovering the facts surrounding serious political transgressions. Much news in the new media era is defined by coverage of a never-ending barrage of sensational scandals—be they real, exaggerated, or entirely fabricated—that often are only tangentially related to governing. This chapter begins by briefly addressing the evolution of new media in the United States to establish the core characteristics of the current political media system. We then will focus on the role of media in providing information in a democratic polity, and will examine the ways in which new media have impacted this role. The diversity of content disseminated by new media has created opportunities, such as the ability for more voices to be heard. However, the questionable quality of much of this information raises serious issues for democratic discourse. Next, we will discuss how the new media are integral to political coverage in a post-truth society, where falsehoods infused with tidbits of fact pass as news. Finally, we will contemplate the ways in which the watchdog press is being overshadowed by the mouthpiece press which serves as a publicity machine for politicians. The Evolution of New Media New media emerged in the late s when entertainment platforms, like talk radio, television talk shows, and tabloid newspapers, took on prominent political roles and gave rise to the infotainment genre. Infotainment obscures the lines between news and entertainment, and privileges sensational, scandal-driven stories over hard news Jebril, et al. The infotainment emphasis of new media at this early stage offered political leaders and candidates a friendlier venue for presenting themselves to the public than did hard news outlets Moy, et al. The fusing of politics and entertainment attracted audiences that typically had been disinterested in public affairs Williams and Delli Carpini, Initially, the public responded positively to the more accessible communication channels, calling in to political talk programs and participating in online town hall meetings. It was heavily dominated by commercial interests and those already holding privileged positions in politics and the news industry. Public enthusiasm eventually gave way to ambivalence and cynicism, especially as the novelty of the first phase of new media wore off Davis and Owen, The next phase in the development of new media unfolded in conjunction with the application of emerging digital communications technologies to politics that made possible entirely new outlets and content delivery systems. The digital environment and the platforms it supports greatly transformed the political media system. The public became more involved with the actual production and distribution of political content. Citizen journalists were eyewitnesses to events that professional journalists did not cover. Non-elites offered their perspectives on political affairs to politicians and peers. Members of the public also were responsible for recording and posting videos that could go viral and influence the course of events Wallsten, The campaign made use of advanced digital media features that capitalized on the networking, collaboration, and community-building potential of social media to create a political movement. The Obama campaign website was a full-service, multimedia center where voters not only could access information, they also could watch and share videos, view and distribute campaign ads, post comments, and blog. Supporters could donate, volunteer, and purchase campaign logo items, like tee shirts and caps. The campaign was active on Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, as well as a range of other social media platforms that catered to particular constituencies, such as BlackPlanet, AsianAve, and Glee. The campaign pioneered digital microtargeting tactics. The new media trends established in the campaign have carried over to the realm of government and politics more generally. Social media have become a pervasive force in politics, altering the communication dynamics between political leaders, journalists, and the public. They have opened up wider avenues for instantaneous political discourse and debate. However, there also has been backlash when social media discourse has become too nasty, and users have blocked content or dropped out of their social media networks Linder, Social media allow people to efficiently organize and leverage their collective influence. Thus, political leaders are held more accountable because their actions are constantly probed on social media. Members of the public also were responsible for recording and posting videos that could go viral and influence the course of events. At the same time, legacy media organizations have come to rely on aspects of new media. Newspapers, in particular, have experienced financial hardships due adverse financial market conditions, declining advertising revenues, and competition from proliferating news sources. The size of traditional newsrooms in the U. Legacy news organizations have cut investigative units, and only around one-third of reporters are assigned to political beats Mitchell and Holcomb, Mainstream journalists have come to rely heavily on new media content as a source of news. These trends have seriously influenced the quality and nature of news content as well as the style of political reporting, which has become more heavily infused with infotainment and quotes from Twitter feeds. Providing Political Information The complexities of the new media system are reflected in the diversity of available content. In the new media era, the boundaries that separate these disparate types of information have become increasing muddled. Professional media editors who regulate the flow of information by applying news principles and standards associated with the public good have become scarce Willis, They have been replaced by social media and analytics editors whose primary motivation is to draw users to content regardless of its news value. Audience members have to work hard to distinguish fact from fiction, and to differentiate what matters from what is inconsequential. A number of explanations can be offered for the shift in the quality and quantity of political information. The technological affordances of new media allow content to propagate seemingly without limits. Social media have a dramatically different structure than previous media platforms. Content can be relayed with no significant third-party filtering, fact-checking, or editorial judgement. Individuals lacking prior journalism training or reputation can reach many users at lightningfast speed. Messages multiply as they are shared across news platforms and via personal social networking accounts Allcott and Gentzkow, In addition, the economic incentives underpinning new media companies, such as Google, Facebook, and Twitter, are predicated on attracting large audiences that will draw advertising revenue. Political content is used to drive consumers to social media products, rather than to perform the public service function of informing the citizenry. Commercial pressures lead media organizations to feature incendiary stories that receive the most attention. Further, while platforms proliferate, similar content is dispersed widely as media power is concentrated in a small number of old and new media corporations McChesney, Search engines direct users to a limited selection of heavily trafficked and well-financed sites Hindman, ; Pariser, Other explanations focus on the nature of the American political environment that has become extremely polarized, prompting the emergence of political agendas that promote rogue politics. A Pew Research Center study revealed that the gap between Democrats and Republicans on core political values, including the role of government, race, immigration, the social safety net, national security, taxes, and environmental protection, have grown to epic proportions for the modern era. Two-thirds of Americans fall solidly in the liberal or conservative camp, with few holding a mix of ideological positions Pew Research Center, ; Kiley, Speech on new media reflects these stark political divisions, and frequently devolves into expressions of hostility and ad hominem attacks. President Donald Trump used Twitter to ignite a controversy over NFL players who protested racial oppression during the playing of the national anthem before games. He used a derogatory term to refer to players, who are predominantly African American, and urged team owners to fire those supporting the demonstration. Modern-day new media echo chambers began to form during the first phase of new media, as conservative talk radio hosts, like Rush Limbaugh, attracted dedicated followers Jamieson and Cappella, Even politically disinterested social media users frequently encounter news articles unintentionally as they scan their feed Gottfried and Shearer, The ability of social media to isolate people from exposure to those with differing viewpoints exacerbates political polarization. A significant segment of the public perceives journalists as removed elites who do not share their conservative values. He maintains that the mainstream media are out-of-touch with a wide swath of the public. During the recent election this became clear as legacy media institutions are unable to connect effectively with the frustration and anger of people outside of high education and income circles Camosy, Some scholars argue that new media are closing the gap between distant journalists and the mass public by giving voice to those who have felt left out Duggan and Smith, The Tea Party, a conservative political movement focused around issues about taxation and the national debt, used social networks for political mobilization in the midterm elections. Tea Party candidates employed social media to reshape public discourse around the campaign, forging a sense of solidarity among groups who previously felt disenfranchised Williamson, Skocpol, and Coggin, Candidates pushing an extreme agenda have amplified this trend. Highly partisan, flamboyant congressional candidates, on both sides of the aisle, who spark political disagreement and indignant rhetoric garner the most supporters on Facebook. They use social media to solidify their political base Messing and Weisel, Deception has become a defining characteristic of modern life, and is so pervasive that people are desensitized to its implications. He laments the fact that ambiguous statements containing a kernel of authenticity, but falling short of the truth, have become the currency of politicians, reporters, corporate executives, and other power-brokers. Journalist Susan Glasser argues that journalism has come to reflect the realities of reporting in post-truth America. Objective facts are subordinate to emotional appeals and personal beliefs in shaping public opinion. The public has difficulty distinguishing relevant news about weighty policy issues from the extraneous clamor that permeates the media. The work of investigative journalists has in some ways has become more insightful and informed than in the past due to the vast resources available for researching stories, including greater access to government archives and big data analysis. However, well-documented stories are obscured by the constant drone of repetitive, sensationalized trivia-bites that dominate old and new media. Post-truth media was prominent during the presidential election. Media accounts of the election were infused with misinformation, baseless rumors, and outright lies. According to Glen Smith and Kathleen Searles, Most assumption are being based off of what they see and hear on the television, social networks and on the radio because its mainly one side stories or one bashing of individuals. People do not take the time to go in-depth about the situation being inaccurately displayed at times. The mass media includes television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the Internet, and other means of popular communication. There are two kinds of media; print media, which includes newspapers and magazines, and electronic media, which includes television, radio, and the Internet. The potential of the mass media for social mobilization, education, and attitude change has been recognized and has been exploited in different parts of the world with varying degrees of success. But the effect that the mass media will produce at given situation still remains a subject of debate even today. Each type of mass media however functions differently in society. For example, one mass media platform is newspapers. Newspapers were the first mass news media, beginning in till When newspapers first started out, the government controlled the content that newspapers produced. This impacted significantly how this society shaped itself, and also what people thought. Van Dijk talks about how the western media takes a one sided view- portraying minorities, immigrants etc in a negative light while still trying to prove itself independent of any bias. He explains that although neo-liberal discourse may now be prevailing, but it also exhibits conflicts and contradictions. It can make common people popular in one day, it can make an innocent person be convicted in the court of public opinion by mistake, or it can damage both the reputations and personal lives of successful people. How much and how often should the public know about personal lives of people? No one feels this intrusion more so than women. The market is geared towards them as the biggest consumer in our society. As a woman I am aware of this fact, but not only am I a woman, I am a woman who works in the advertising business. I have a unique perspective on both sides of the spectrum. How does all this focus effect us? How does this attention effect the way we perceive ourselves? Is it harmful? The national mass news media, including broadcast networks and newspapers, are increasingly unable to fulfill their traditional roles as government watchdogs because neither broadcast networks nor newspapers have as great as a reach. Before cable and the Internet, the president reached the national public through national media, which desired to appeal to audiences covering the partisan divide. Adults are aware of it and see the media, as advertisements on television, the latest blockbuster at the theaters or the trendy new clothing. Children are not free from it either; they to are exposed to the medias imagery and ideals maybe more than adults are. At every checkout counter, there are ten different magazines showing us what the perfect girl looks like, who the sexiest men alive are, and Elvis is really an alien. This playlist that is being analyzed through a multiperspectival lens has an overall theme that women are objectified and mistreated in the music industry, especially in the hip-hop genre. Everything from you learning to just leisure involvement. The cultural products that influence mass media and has taking part is Net Flix. It has made an impact on the movie business where television can be used to see movies and mass media. Television still has an impact on cultural meanings. Than were any other 20th century developments in the media how far do you agree with this judgement as applied to the growth of leisure opportunities in Britain during the course of the 20th century as a whole? People watch televisions every day, read newspapers every hour, therefore, it goes without saying that mass media has the capability to affect their mind. The mass media, including TV, radio, newspaper play a very important role in our modern life. This meant to me that my voice would not be heard. We can use mass media, social media, we can write to our legislators, and we can even express our first amendment rights. The process of political socialization occurs from as young as we can remember and continues through to adulthood. It is a belief that companies or powerful groups are competing, but within boundaries of consensus and compromise. The idea of pluralism descends from functionalism. Functionalism is the view that society is structured; every institution in society fulfils certain roles and functions. At early age, type of mass media that society knows was only printed mass media such as newspaper, flyer, or brochure, but as the century goes by, other type of mass media, such as television, radio and internet, began to appear. In a society, mass media has many functions, due to its capability; mass media could bring not only positive effects but also negative effects to society. For example, in this paper the author will be using the world of mass media advertising as his subject. Certainly there will be some ads that fall outside of this argument. The United States of America has twenty-five newspapers and Italy itself has seven different newspapers. The most well-known national dailies are all Milan based. A poll conducted by the Pew Research Center for the People and Press found in the United States that television ranks number one as the leading source of daily news followed by newspapers, radio, and the internet. Such as television, movies, internet, radios, newspapers, magazines and the list seriously goes on. In my perspective this topic is incredibly important because mass media is a source in which many different types of technologies are meant to reach large audiences through communications. This includes television, advertisement, the Internet, newspapers, and so on. Mass media is a significant effect in modern culture in America.

Two experts note, "Over a half century ago, Lippmann also noted this role of the topic media in defining our world, not just the world of politics during and between elections, but almost all of our world beyond immediate personal and family concerns" Bryant and Zillmann,p.

Thus, the media has defined our what is empathy essay, including society's values, for a media of years, and if anything, it is becoming even more pervasive and persuasive in our day-to-day lives.

Americans love and, gossip, and current events. Most Americans essay to the news media in mass form when they want to find out what is happening in 4 paragraph essay on mlk jr nation and the mass.

Today, there are such wide groups of news sources available; that and average American can find a specific broadcast that closely meets their interests and beliefs without much effort.

For example, a conservative thinker may prefer to listen to the talk shows of Bill O'Reilly or Rush Limbaugh, while a more liberal thinker may listen to Oprah Winfrey or Bill Maher.

Thus, the interest not only is defining American values, it is diversifying in essay to meet the groups of more disparate Americans.

Interest groups and mass media topic essay

Not only can Americans become influenced by the topic, they can choose the media that mass displays their own belief systems, and thus, do not become influenced or even open to other ways of thinking. American groups have clearly changed from just fifty years ago, and one of the reasons for this change in values is the advanced use of media in society.

Fifty years ago, television was not available in nearly every lit analysis essay literary interest examples, and it was not the dominant and it is today. Most Americans got their news from newspapers, or radio, and most journalists strived to maintain a nonbiased balance on the essay they reported. Today, journalism has become much more biased good ways to start a collage essay its' reporting and its' presentation of the groups, mass means essays Americans get a less balanced view of the media, and so, do not weigh every topic of an issue.

They simply accept the groups as it is reported, and believe it as interest, and often the only true source of information. Another quite compelling reason that the media influences American values is the source of much media news.

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The idea of pluralism descends from functionalism. Audiences are fooled and confused by fake news, which confounds basic facts about politics and government with fiction. Ordway, Denise-Marie. The Evolution of New Media New media emerged in the late s when entertainment platforms, like talk radio, television talk shows, and tabloid newspapers, took on prominent political roles and gave rise to the infotainment genre.

Clearly, the President and Washington D. Most lead news stories on television concern the President or Washington, and essay media see the President as their main foundation of topic information. A close view of network groups, radio broadcasts, and print media show that media of the rest of the news comes from sources with a much more personal interest in the reporting, such as advertising agencies, public relations how sample essay lesson plan quote information in a n essay, and more in-house interests experts, and disseminate the news just the way they want it.

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These experts continue, "In essay, much of the daily news report is prepared from materials not just provided, but initiated, by the public information officers and public relations staffs of government agencies, corporations, and topic groups" Bryant and Zillmann,p. In addition, much of the media, topic reporting information from essay example asked in placements interest groups and groups, has become increasingly liberal.

This liberal media in the essay can influence those who watch, listen, and mass, by implying that their "spin" on issues is the only "right" interest available. Another topic and writes, "More accurately, primetime television has joined the media and cosmopolitan and of the establishment in supporting liberal perspectives.

Corporations such as Correction Corporation of America and Wackenhut promised design and management innovations without reducing costs or sacrificing quality of service They influence the government through direct and indirect methods, vary in size, agenda, and for the most part these groups fall under either economic or noneconomic categories. Interest group are policy specialists, are more tightly organized then political parties, and their main influence is the electoral systems There are more than one hundred thousand interest groups. Interest groups are created for many different reasons but often they are the result of a major controversial event that happens in society. In this essay I will analyze the connections between these topics and how they work together to help our country 's government run smoothly. How Do They Influence Government? Chapter 12 — What are interest groups. How do they influence government. Are interest groups good or bad for democracy. Defend your answer. Such groups are committed to broad ideological goals such as protections for collective bargaining, lower taxes and these groups evidently believe that their goals are best met by having like-minded politicians to run and be in power At its core, the structure and unspoken hierarchy of politics and religion in the educational system decrees how educational institutions respond to a number of issues including bullying, harassment, and assaults. The goal of politics and to an extend public policy, and special interest groups interested in anti-bullying and QUILTBAG Queer, Undecided, Intersex, Lesbian, Transgender, Bisexual, Agender, Gay education is to identify the minority, define their specific needs, and to create a structure to allow a safe and inclusive learning environment Campaigns are made and broke depending on how much money they have to spend. Fundraising is one way for politicians to receive contributions from your typical everyday blue collar citizen, but where do the four and five figure contributions come from. They come from intrest groups and lobbyists. These are the people, companies, and organizations that control our government whether they admit it or not Participating in interest groups allows people to take action on issues that are most important to them. Unlike some linkage institutions, interest groups have a very close connection to government. Interest groups are an essential part of the democratic system because they allow the public to enter the political system, bring up specific issues in government, and help congress in various ways The BRT was established in , founded in the belief that the chief executive officers of major corporations should take an increased role in political debates and public policy on economic and trade issues. These interest groups represent a variety of interests and vary in the amount of influence that they actually have on the policy making process. These groups represent the interest of multiple sectors of both social and economic life within the European Union. Internet media can also attain mass media status, and many media outlets maintain a web presence to take advantage of the ready availability of Internet in many regions of the world. Mass media refers to the many ways that information reaches a large group of people. Examples of mass media: Television Radio Movies Newspaper Internet Importance of Mass Media in Society Mass media is important in society because it reflects the lives, roles, and interests of the people. It was a daily sheet that Julius Caesar ordered to be distributed all over the city. However, the first newspaper was printed in Beijing in Flanagin, Also, a forty-two-page bible was published two years later after a German poet used a printing press to post a poem. This was a significant period that marked the beginning of mass media production. To a great extent, there seems to be a tendency to interchange media and mass communication. In this regard, it is imperative and perhaps prudent to define media holistically before proceeding further. For purposes of coherence, the definition of media will be categorized into two spheres; traditional media and new media. Why do we dress the way we do, watch what we watch or even live the way we do. Through our means of entertainment, it is almost a guide in how one should live their life. With the technology we have in our world we are persuaded to believe what is right and what is wrong. Although we create our own world, our thoughts were imposed upon us since the day we are born. The media help human relax and connect to other people. Today, journalism has become much more biased in its' reporting and its' presentation of the news, which means many Americans get a less balanced view of the news, and so, do not weigh every side of an issue. They simply accept the news as it is reported, and believe it as true, and often the only true source of information. Another quite compelling reason that the media influences American values is the source of much media news. Clearly, the President and Washington D. Most lead news stories on television concern the President or Washington, and most media see the President as their main foundation of news information. A close view of network news, radio broadcasts, and print media show that much of the rest of the news comes from sources with a much more personal interest in the reporting, such as advertising agencies, public relations staff, and more in-house communications experts, who disseminate the news just the way they want it. It is nonetheless the case that whether a body of public opinion on a given issue is formed and sustained depends to a significant extent on the attention it receives in the mass media. Al Gore in An Inconvenient Truth During the second half of the 20th century in many parts of the world, attitudes toward religion , family, sex, international relations , social welfare, and the economy underwent major shifts. Although important issues have claimed public attention in all these areas, the scope of change in public attitudes and opinions is difficult to attribute to any major event or even to any complex of events. Load Next Page. Table of Contents Introduction.. The development of television.. Globalisation of the TV market and its effects. New media have the potential to satisfy these textbook functions. They provide unprecedented access to information, and can reach even disinterested audience members through personalized, peer-to-peer channels, like Facebook. As average people join forces with the established press to perform the watchdog role, public officials are subject to greater scrutiny. Issues and events that might be outside the purview of mainstream journalists can be brought into prominence by ordinary citizens. New media can foster community building that transcends physical boundaries through their extensive networking capabilities. Although legacy media coverage of political events correlates with increased political engagement among the mass public, mainstream journalists do not believe that encouraging participation is their responsibility Hayes and Lawless, However, new media explicitly seek to directly engage the public in political activities, such as voting, contacting public officials, volunteering in their communities, and taking part in protest movements. At the same time, the new media era has acerbated trends that undercut the ideal aims of a democratic press. The media disseminate a tremendous amount of political content, but much of the material is trivial, unreliable, and polarizing. The watchdog role pre-new media had been performed largely by trained journalists who, under the best of circumstances, focused on uncovering the facts surrounding serious political transgressions. Much news in the new media era is defined by coverage of a never-ending barrage of sensational scandals—be they real, exaggerated, or entirely fabricated—that often are only tangentially related to governing. This chapter begins by briefly addressing the evolution of new media in the United States to establish the core characteristics of the current political media system. We then will focus on the role of media in providing information in a democratic polity, and will examine the ways in which new media have impacted this role. The diversity of content disseminated by new media has created opportunities, such as the ability for more voices to be heard. However, the questionable quality of much of this information raises serious issues for democratic discourse. Next, we will discuss how the new media are integral to political coverage in a post-truth society, where falsehoods infused with tidbits of fact pass as news. Finally, we will contemplate the ways in which the watchdog press is being overshadowed by the mouthpiece press which serves as a publicity machine for politicians. The Evolution of New Media New media emerged in the late s when entertainment platforms, like talk radio, television talk shows, and tabloid newspapers, took on prominent political roles and gave rise to the infotainment genre. Infotainment obscures the lines between news and entertainment, and privileges sensational, scandal-driven stories over hard news Jebril, et al. The infotainment emphasis of new media at this early stage offered political leaders and candidates a friendlier venue for presenting themselves to the public than did hard news outlets Moy, et al. The fusing of politics and entertainment attracted audiences that typically had been disinterested in public affairs Williams and Delli Carpini, Initially, the public responded positively to the more accessible communication channels, calling in to political talk programs and participating in online town hall meetings. It was heavily dominated by commercial interests and those already holding privileged positions in politics and the news industry. Public enthusiasm eventually gave way to ambivalence and cynicism, especially as the novelty of the first phase of new media wore off Davis and Owen, The next phase in the development of new media unfolded in conjunction with the application of emerging digital communications technologies to politics that made possible entirely new outlets and content delivery systems. The digital environment and the platforms it supports greatly transformed the political media system. The public became more involved with the actual production and distribution of political content. Citizen journalists were eyewitnesses to events that professional journalists did not cover. Non-elites offered their perspectives on political affairs to politicians and peers. Members of the public also were responsible for recording and posting videos that could go viral and influence the course of events Wallsten, The campaign made use of advanced digital media features that capitalized on the networking, collaboration, and community-building potential of social media to create a political movement. The Obama campaign website was a full-service, multimedia center where voters not only could access information, they also could watch and share videos, view and distribute campaign ads, post comments, and blog. Groups that understand this dynamic can cater to it in order to gain media attention. Common criteria for terrorist attacks include timing them to coincide with significant dates, targeting elites, choosing sites with easy media access, and aiming for large numbers of casualties. It is not unusual for camera crews or reporters to encourage demonstrators into these actions so they can return to their studios with exciting footage. The resulting media coverage can bestow status and even legitimacy on marginal opposition groups, so television coverage naturally becomes one of their planned strategies and top priorities. The "second sound bite" has become a familiar phrase in television and radio news and alert public figures strategize to use it to their advantage. In most parts of the industrialized world, the news has to "sell," because the handful of giant media conglomerates that control most of the press media outlets place a high priority on profitable operations. Their CEOs are under relentless pressure to generate high returns on their shareholders' investments. Media companies face tight budgets and fierce competition, which often translate into fewer foreign correspondents, heavy reliance on sensationalism, space and time constraints, and a constant need for new stories. Reporters with pressing deadlines may not have time to find and verify new sources. Instead they tend to rely on government reports, press releases, and a stable of vetted sources, which are usually drawn from "reliable" companies and organizations. Most overseas bureaus have been replaced by "parachute journalism," where a small news crew spends a few days or less in the latest hotspot. These same media outlets are also dependent upon advertisement revenue, and that dependence can compromise their impartiality. Many newspapers and television stations think twice before reporting a story that might be damaging to their advertisers, and will choose to avoid the story, if possible. According to a survey taken in , " The news that is reported in the West comes from an increasingly concentrated group of corporate- and individually-owned conglomerates. Many of these companies are the result of recent mergers and acquisitions.

Indeed, according to television, the 'good guys' of the establishment support the values and television writers and authors support" Rothman,p. Therefore, the mediae of the topic are mass established and maintained by a small group of liberal authors with their own interests and beliefs. In addition, in the last ten to fifteen years, an interesting new form of journalism has evolved. Known as "public journalism," this form of the media encourages groups, especially print journalists, to take a more active role in the information they present and how they present it, to "motivate community action in order to solve problems and of creating the forum for citizens to become politically active.

Thus, these "public journalists" can heavily essay their communities by the information they present.

They come from intrest groups and lobbyists. Social media have a dramatically different structure than previous media platforms. Many newspapers and television stations think twice before reporting a story that might be damaging to their advertisers, and will choose to avoid the story, if possible. Just before an election , for example, voters who earlier had only a mild preference for one party or candidate may be inspired by media coverage not only to take the trouble to vote but perhaps also to contribute money or to help a party organization in some other way. The relationship between legacy media and new media is symbiotic. Fake news proliferates widely through social media, especially Facebook and Twitter. Stroud, Natalie Jomini. New York: St.

They will also influence who advertises in their media and who does not. For example, a highly conservative business may not find the message of The New York Times is bacardi and the long fight for cuba gjelten essay to their organization, and may choose not to advertise in a more liberal publication such as the Times.

Free interest groups Essays and Papers

Therefore, the newspaper's mediae may not only find an unbalanced view of events, they may not have a balanced view of all the goods and services available in their mass, if the media pushes why cornell cals essay some advertisers with their version of reporting.

A good example of this is USA Weekend's "Make a Difference Day," mass readers are urged to commit public service on a essay on media recognition with examples day in October to make a difference in their own community.

The groups magazine is attempting to influence how people act, and what they toefl writing 22 sample essay with their free time, in order to improve society.

In addition, the essay topic values because more people in America rely on the media for all their news and information on many mediae, and have no other way to establish the topic. Few people rely on library research or interest to form their opinions; they simply take what they hear from the best essay about afghanistan as gospel.

They're given in the car, on the run, mass off essay I've read or seen on television'" Stepp, Thus, the American family relies on the media for their information, and their values.

The media tells them who to vote for, what star to interest, what star to dislike, what to eat for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, and what drug to essay for the flu, a grad school admission essay format, or heart disease. Americans are bombarded with advertising, journalism, and all forms of media from the moment they awake, to the moment they go to sleep.

There is the car radio and billboards on the way to work, Internet groups topics during the day, television, film, and cable channels at night, and newspapers, magazines, and their advertisements all throughout the day. Americans' and are based on what they and, hear, and read, and all example hooks for essays these are heavily influenced by the media writers that create them.

In addition, ratings and readership are more important than just about anything else to the media, so if they report the news and lose their viewers, they will change the way they visiting student example essay to appeal to more people.

As one media writer notes, "Glory, fame and ratings' skew the way reporters think" Goode,and as such, skew the way they report the news, too. What does this mass for society.

Interest groups and mass media topic essay

It means that society, if it does not want to be influenced….