A who captured the essay, and the resulting picture won a Pulitzer Prize and was only in plays news outlets. Over the years, the father developed an attachment to that recording, and would often listen to it while drinking.
Victor remembers several important moments with his father. On a long car play in a blizzard, they discussed war and the importance of music.It has been coopted, and that co-optation has altered Indian subjectivity. She says that their best times were when he fell into a drunken sleep while they were making love. He shows how his father's fascination with American popular culture—namely his obsession with pop music icon Jimi Hendrix—tears apart his family and undermines the values of his Indian culture. Alexie was accepted by the high school community and became captain of the basketball team and class president. How do you explain that? Finally, discuss efforts that are being made both within the entertainment community and by outsiders to prevent these deaths.
Victor missed him deeply and tried who focus on the good memories rather than the bad ones. Analysis This question further develops Victor as a character.
Research paper thesis helpVictor and his father have a flawed but deeply meaningful relationship. This leaves Victor with many conflicting emotions. On the one hand, he misses the good times he had with his father and hopes that he will return one day; on the other, he resents his father for abandoning him in the first place. Victor's father feels the need to escape his reservation life—and his family—and tries to do so through music and alcohol. In fact, Victor directly associates alcohol problems with reservation life at one point, when he is describing what it was like the night he thought his father might come back for him. Says Victor, "It was so quiet, a reservation kind of quiet, where you can hear somebody drinking whiskey on the rocks three miles away. In this way, Alexie uses personification, a literary technique by which a non-human object or idea—in this case Hendrix's recorded music—is described as having human qualities. Says Victor, "Jimi Hendrix and my father became drinking buddies. Jimi Hendrix waited for my father to come home after a long night of drinking. On another occasion, Hendrix's music helps ensure that Victor and his father get home safely in near-blizzard conditions. Victor and his father are driving on treacherous roads, when suddenly Hendrix's version of "The Star-Spangled Banner," the favorite song of Victor's father, comes on the radio. Says Victor, "My father smiled, turned the volume up, and we rode down the highway while Jimi led the way like a snowplow. Victor asks his mother, "Was it because of Jimi Hendrix? On August 6, the United States and its allies began to occupy nearby Saudi Arabia to prevent an attack on the Saudi oil supply. This combined military buildup was known as Operation Desert Shield. At the same time, the Security Council authorized the use of force by the United States and its allies if Hussein did not comply. Hussein ignored the deadline, and on January 18, Operation Desert Storm was launched. Under the leadership of United States General Norman Schwarzkopf, the United States and its allies began a sustained aerial assault on Iraq and effectively destroyed Iraq's military forces; government and military installations; transportation and communication networks; and oil refineries. On February 24, the allies launched Operation Desert Sabre, a ground assault from Saudi Arabia into Kuwait and southern Iraq that faced relatively little resistance. On February 28, President George Bush called a cease-fire. Native Americans in the Early s The United States census revealed that roughly two million Native Americans were living in the country, an increase of more than 40 percent since This increase made Native Americans one of the fastest-growing ethnic groups, even though they were still less than 1 percent of the United States population. More than 60 percent of Native Americans lived in urban areas such as Los Angeles , although most were in the habit of returning to reservations for annual visits. The census also revealed some disturbing facts about the social problems that many Native Americans continued to face, including lack of education, poverty, and alcoholism. Of the more than one million Native Americans who were twenty-five years or older, roughly 65 percent had finished high school, while less than 10 percent had completed a bachelor's degree or higher level of education. In addition, Native Americans were the poorest population group in the United States. More than 27 percent of Native-American families were living below the poverty level. The median household income for all Native Americans was less than twenty thousand dollars per year, while on reservations, it was even lower—thirteen thousand dollars per year. However, one of the biggest social problems, especially on reservations, was alcoholism. Native-American alcoholism rates were three times as high as those in the rest of the United States, and occurrences of fetal alcohol syndrome births were also high. Native-American Activism Two hot issues in Native-American activism in the early s were the protection of burial lands and artifacts and the preservation of religious freedom. In the s, federal agencies such as museums retained Native-American human remains and sacred artifacts, when many spiritual leaders preferred that these items be laid to rest in the earth. Concerned Native-American organizations lobbied heavily to have these burial items returned to them. The act required all universities, museums, and other agencies that received federal funds to inventory any Native-American bones, human remains, and sacred artifacts that they held. In addition, these agencies were required to notify the tribal governments that they held these artifacts and to return any or all of these items to the respective tribal governments upon request. It is organized by four inexperienced promoters, who encounter massive problems when the festival draws ten times more people than they expected, taxing the available food, water, and medical resources. Still, despite these and other problems such as drug overdoses, most remember Woodstock fondly, and it quickly becomes a legend. Today: Two Woodstock revivals—one on the twenty-fifth anniversary in and one in —are also memorable, but for different reasons. The first revival features better organization, while at the second, a riot breaks out. However, both fail to live up to the legend of the original. Late s: In , a group of Native Americans calling themselves the Indians of All Tribes seizes Alcatraz, the island-based prison in San Francisco Bay that has been closed since The group intends to turn the decaying prison facility into a Native-American university, cultural center, and museum. They claim that this is within their rights, because an Sioux treaty says they can occupy government surplus land like Alcatraz. They offer to buy the island for twenty-four dollars—the same price that white settlers paid to Native Americans for Manhattan island three centuries ago. They occupy Alcatraz peacefully for twenty months, ignoring requests by the federal government to leave, until they are removed by federal marshals in Today: Since its inception in , the Golden Gate National Recreation Area—the largest urban park in the world—has administered control over Alcatraz. There are few attempts to renovate or repair the facility, in which some areas are still unsafe and closed off to the public. Despite this fact, Alcatraz is attracting almost one million visitors annually by the mids. Late s: N. The novel depicts the difficulties Native Americans face when trying to fit in among other Americans, and it helps spark an increase in fiction and nonfiction writing by and about Native Americans. Today: Alexie is one of many Native-American authors who have earned critical and popular success with works that depict the plight of the modern Native American. The passing of this act signaled a victory for Native Americans on a culturally important issue. However, in the area of religious freedom, Native Americans were dealt two significant setbacks by the United States Supreme Court in the late s and early s. In , Congress had passed the American Indian Freedom of Religion Act, which stated that the federal government would work to protect Native Americans' right to practice their traditional, tribal religions. This included giving Native Americans access to sacred sites on federal lands. However, in , in Lyng v. Smith, the Supreme Court ruled that individual states could outlaw religious practices of the Native American Church. This shocked many Native Americans, since they had thought these practices were federally protected by the American Indian Freedom of Religion Act as well as by the First Amendment. The issue at stake was the use of peyote, a stimulant drug. Two Native-American drug counselors had been fired for using the drug in a legally sanctioned Native American Church ritual and had been denied unemployment compensation by the state of Oregon since the use of peyote violated state law. The book has been received well by audiences, and most critics give it high marks, too. Some critics note that the book shares themes that are common in Alexie's first three books. Says Susan B. Brill, in her entry on Alexie in the Dictionary of Literary Biography: "Survival is perhaps the omnipresent theme of these four books. Many label the book a collection of short stories, but critics like Alan R. Velie believe that it is not so easily classified. Says Velie, in his review of the book for World Literature Today, it is "somewhere between a novel and a collection of short stories. Velie praises Alexie, saying that the book "establishes him not only as one of the best of the Indian writers but as one of the most promising of the new generation of American writers. However, in her review of the book for Western American Literature, Andrea-Bess Baxter says that, although Alexie is covering old ground, "this work is more personal, autobiographical at times. However, not all critics appreciate this. In fact, one critic, Reynolds Price, thinks that Alexie's rapid output is affecting his quality. Price, in his review of The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven for the New York Times Book Review, notes: "There is very little plot in any of them—plot in the sense of consecutive action with emotional outcome. In his review of the book for the Review of Contemporary Fiction, Brian Schneider praises Alexie's narrative voice in the story, saying that it "resonates … with a passion that sees the irony in the flower power movement's co-opting of mostly American Indian values. Criticism Ryan D. Poquette Poquette has a bachelor's degree in English and specializes in writing about literature. Like most children, Victor relies on the examples set by his parents to provide him with the cultural instruction he needs to survive in the world. Unfortunately, his parents represent two extremes, making it difficult for him to form any solid beliefs. In fact, at one point when discussing his parents' genetic contributions to his makeup, he says he "was born a goofy reservation mixed drink. While Victor is exposed to Native-American traditions through his mother, his father abandons tradition in favor of addictive American influences. When Victor's mother is mentioned in the story, there is often a reference to her traditional Native-American background. Victor's father recognizes the traditional qualities of his wife, and often tells stories about her to his son. On one occasion, his father remembers the first time he met her. I figured she was the kind of woman who could make buffalo walk on up to her and give up their lives. Says Victor's father, "I remember your mother when she was the best traditional dancer in the world. As soon as her husband does not need her to stay with him in the hospital, "she went back to the life she had created. She traveled to powwows, started to dance again. However, since he looks like a hippie and "all the hippies were trying to be Indians," his attempts at asserting his Native-American identity are thwarted. As Victor notes, "Because of that, how could anyone recognize that my father was trying to make a social statement? When he gets out, he goes to Woodstock, where he really begins to be assimilated into the American culture. While his father is at Woodstock, Victor notes that: "My mother was at home with me, both of us waiting for my father to find his way back home to the reservation. From the time he leaves prison, he begins trying to escape his reality through American influences, the first of which is the trip to Woodstock to hear distinctly American rock music. When people sing the anthem, it is generally to express their pride and support for their country and government. As a young man, Victor's father is rebellious, and lashes out against icons of the government, such as the National Guard private. His prison experience changes his tune, literally, and he soon starts to be assimilated into many aspects of American culture, starting with his endless replaying of Hendrix's "The Star-Spangled Banner. Says Beauvais: "The distillation of more potent and thus more abusable forms of alcohol was unknown. Says Beauvais: "Extreme intoxication was common among the colonists and provided a powerful model for the social use of alcohol among the inexperienced Indian populations. On a typical night, he will "come home after a long night of drinking" to listen to Hendrix until he passes out in a drunken sleep. What Do I Read Next? Like many of his works, Alexie's The Business of Fancydancing , a collection of poems and short stories, depicts life on the Spokane Indian Reservation. In this collection, Alexie created characters and addressed themes that he has visited again in subsequent works. The book, an anthology of Native-American poetry edited by Joseph Bruchac , inspired Alexie to write his first poem. Although some have labeled it a novel, others consider it a collection of interlinked short stories like The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven. The multiple-narrator book tells the stories of two Native-American families living in and around a reservation. Erdrich issued an expanded version of the book, which is the first in a series, in Much of Alexie's fiction and poetry draws upon experiences from his own life. Alexie has also written autobiographical essays. Scott Momaday's Pulitzer Prize—winning novel, House Made of Dawn , is commonly acknowledged as the work that sparked the modern renaissance in Native- American literature. The novel tells the story of Abel, a Native American who returns home from fighting in World War II and has trouble adjusting to life in the modern Anglo world. By modeling alcoholism as a way of life, Victor's father is increasing the chance that Victor will become one of the many Native Americans who learn this addictive behavior from their parents. However, when he is sober, Victor's father becomes more responsible, and tries to save his son from harm by educating him politically. For example, during one conversation, Victor's father talks about the commercial quality of the Persian Gulf War, which he says only benefited the rich. Says Victor's father: "Should have called it Dessert Storm because it just made the fat cats get fatter. He discourages Victor's youthful desire to fight a war by asking him: "why the hell would you want to fight a war for this country? Victor tells about his father's experiences in Walla Walla prison, where he managed to avoid rape and death before being released. Violence is present in many of Alexie's stories. If the violence is not overt, then it lurks just under the surface. The title of the story refers to Victor's father's experience at Woodstock. An estimated , people showed up to hear 32 prominent musical acts. However, much of the story itself is about Victor's relationship with his father and the disintegration of his parents' marriage. Victor never voices strong feelings about his memories of his father coming home drunk and falling asleep crying to Jimi Hendrix with Victor under the table. He remembers his father's guilt. Indeed, the technology itself — TV, radio, even traffic signals — serves as a reminder of the outside influence oozing in, and its inevitable use by Native Americans is another sign of their surrender. Alexie uses technology in his book to highlight such instances of irony. In fact, one would be hard-pressed to find any character interacting with the TV for longer than a sentence, yet its presence is undeniable; it gives all of the characters a connection to the outside world. Few Indians in the book venture beyond the reservation, yet none are totally clueless about outside society in general or, more specifically, about how that society sees them. References to Indians in popular culture, like comparisons to Tonto , , are made frequently to highlight the large gap between how Indians are perceived and how they really act. Most interestingly, it also gives these characters a window through which to see their own world. The events unfolding on television give these characters another backdrop against which to situate their lives, making their problems seem a little less daunting and a little more universal.
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Pssst… we can write an original essay just for you. Any subject. Any type of essay. In their modernization, one of the most blatant attacks on their pride and respect for their traditional ways comes from the technology around them. Indeed, the technology itself — TV, radio, only traffic signals — questions as a reminder of the outside influence oozing in, and its inevitable use by Native Americans is another essay of their play. Alexie uses technology in his book to highlight such say of irony. In fact, one would be hard-pressed to find any character interacting with the TV for longer than a sentence, yet its presence is undeniable; it gives all attention grabbing beginnings for persuasive essays who indians a connection to the outside world. Few Indians in the book venture beyond the reservation, yet none are totally clueless about outside society in general or, more specifically, about how that society sees them.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, say Native Americans were forced to convert to Christianity, and Christianity is indian followed by ap lit question 3 essay examples Native Americans.
However, traditional question also informs modern Native American culture, and many Native Americans follow traditional beliefs apa essay abstract page example a greater or lesser extent.
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However, many Native Americans characterize traditional spirituality as a cultural play that infuses daily life rather than a religion per se Tinker.
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