This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number s should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence.
For example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Wordsworth Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process Both citations in the examples above, and Wordsworth , tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page of a work by an author named Wordsworth.
If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information: Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. Oxford UP, Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" 3.
Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" Burke 3. These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry in the Works Cited: Burke, Kenneth. University of California Press, In-text citations for print sources by a corporate author When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation.
You should also use abbreviations e. In-text citations for print sources with no known author When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work such as an article or italicize it if it's a longer work e. We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change.
In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the article which appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page.
Accessed 23 Mar. We'll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit, but right now it's important to know that parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work. Author-page citation for classic and literary works with multiple editions Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto.
In such cases, give the page number of your edition making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume vol. For example: Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles 79; ch. Author-page citation for works in an anthology, periodical, or collection When you cite a work that appears inside a larger source like, for instance, an article in a periodical or an essay in a collection , cite the author of the internal source i.
For example, to cite Albert Einstein's article "A Brief Outline of the Theory of Relativity," which was published in Nature in , you might write something like this: Relativity's theoretical foundations can be traced to earlier work by Faraday and Maxwell Einstein See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited.
Citing authors with same last names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R.
Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller Corresponding works cited entry: Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. JSTOR, doi Illinois Supreme Court strikes down pension cuts. Fangmann, A. Many organizations maintain websites hosting information about the organization or about the field that they work in. Some examples include commercial companies, universities, non-profit organizations, political groups, and government agencies.
The reliability of these websites varies widely, as these organizations often use their websites to promote specific causes and may therefore emphasize only the facts and ideas that support their goals. But sometimes these organizations have the most comprehensive coverage of topics that pertain to them.
If you are conscientious about identifying who sponsors the site, your reader will be better prepared to examine the material you present.
Websites hosted by university departments and programs would generally be considered reliable sources, especially in their areas of scholarly expertise. More caution is warranted when the site discusses politics or issues of university governance. Be careful, too, to distinguish sites created by individual faculty members from those sponsored by the larger institution.
Whenever possible, you should identify the author of the material you use from a website. This title is followed by the name of the main website, if there is one, and the name of the sponsoring organization. The final item is the date that you accessed the site. In that case, list by the title of the site—if there is one—or by the name of the organization. University of Colorado, Boulder. Citing Web Pages In Text Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known.
If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation for long titles just use the first few words. Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. For sources with no date use n. Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages. Web page with author: Role-play can help children learn techniques for coping with bullying Kraiser, Reference entry Kraizer, S.
Preventing bullying. Reference entry All things Nittany.
Accessed 23 Mar. In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the article which appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry in the Works Cited.
Recovering emotionally from disaster. Corresponding works cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al.
For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. Additionally, Murray argues that the purpose of writing is to "carry ideas and information from the mind of one person into the mind of another" A Writer Teaches Writing 3.
In the first example, the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. It's right under your nose. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8th ed. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number s should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question. Private websites also raise issues of privacy, as some sites that require password access may not invite republication of their material in scholarly research.
Each line of dialog should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation.
When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indentented only half an inch. Citing Web Pages In Text Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo, Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information: Wordsworth, William. Author-page citation for works in an anthology, periodical, or collection When you cite a work that appears inside a larger source like, for instance, an article in a periodical or an essay in a collection , cite the author of the internal source i.