Try to list methods that were not previously used by other researches and order new research design, based on literature overview; Assumptions and consequences. In this section you need to clarify what impact will your study have, what are the suggestions and potential changes in the field.
You should also give information how it will influence the lives of others and how the results will be used; Conclusion. This section should be brief and straight to the point. You need to emphasize why your research is important and why it should be done. You should also write a few sentences on the potential field of its implementation and why people will benefit from it. We hope, that with the help of this data you will be able to interest the reader and be able to create a deep and thoughtful research paper.
Research Proposal topics According to the latest surveys, over a half of all students face difficulties when looking for research proposal ideas for the topic. We decided to put an ease on the writing process and offer a list of ideas. Choose the best matching research topic proposal example as the inspiration: How politics influences society. The results of Georgia military policy toward South Ossetia. What hinds behind the terms Fascism and Nazism. How religious extremism influences policy and economy.
Can anarchism be politically orientated? The fragility of modern democracy. Buddhism: the history and evolution. This step is accomplished by a thorough and critical review of the literature and by personal communication with experts. It gives due credit to those who have laid the groundwork for your proposed research.
The literature selected should be pertinent and relevant. Objectives: Research objectives are the goals to be achieved by conducting the research. The general objective of the research is what is to be accomplished by the research project, for example, to determine whether or not a new vaccine should be incorporated in a public health program.
The specific objectives relate to the specific research questions the investigator wants to answer through the proposed study and may be presented as primary and secondary objectives, for example, primary: To determine the degree of protection that is attributable to the new vaccine in a study population by comparing the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. Young investigators are advised to resist the temptation to put too many objectives or over-ambitious objectives that cannot be adequately achieved by the implementation of the protocol.
Variables: During the planning stage, it is necessary to identify the key variables of the study and their method of measurement and unit of measurement must be clearly indicated. Four types of variables are important in research 5 : a. Independent variables: variables that are manipulated or treated in a study in order to see what effect differences in them will have on those variables proposed as being dependent on them.
Dependent variables: variables in which changes are results of the level or amount of the independent variable or variables. Synonyms: effect, outcome, consequence, result, condition, disease. For instance, in a study of the effect of measles independent variable on child mortality dependent variable , the nutritional status of the child may play an intervening confounding role. Background variables: variables that are so often of relevance in investigations of groups or populations that they should be considered for possible inclusion in the study.
For example sex, age, ethnic origin, education, marital status, social status etc. The objective of research is usually to determine the effect of changes in one or more independent variables on one or more dependent variables. For example, a study may ask "Will alcohol intake independent variable have an effect on development of gastric ulcer dependent variable? The characteristics that define these variables must be clearly identified for the purpose of the study.
A hypothesis can be defined as a tentative prediction or explanation of the relationship between two or more variables. In other words, the hypothesis translates the problem statement into a precise, unambiguous prediction of expected outcomes.
Hypotheses are not meant to be haphazard guesses, but should reflect the depth of knowledge, imagination and experience of the investigator. For example: "Health education involving active participation by mothers will produce more positive changes in child feeding than health education based on lectures". Here the independent variable is types of health education and the dependent variable is changes in child feeding. A research question poses a relationship between two or more variables but phrases the relationship as a question; a hypothesis represents a declarative statement of the relations between two or more variables.
Is there a relationship between them? Deciding whether to use questions or hypotheses depends on factors such as the purpose of the study, the nature of the design and methodology, and the audience of the research at times even the outlook and preference of the committee members, particularly the Chair.
Methodology: The method section is very important because it tells your research Committee how you plan to tackle your research problem. The guiding principle for writing the Methods section is that it should contain sufficient information for the reader to determine whether the methodology is sound.
Some even argue that a good proposal should contain sufficient details for another qualified researcher to implement the study. This section should include: Research design: The selection of the research strategy is the core of research design and is probably the single most important decision the investigator has to make.
The choice of the strategy, whether descriptive, analytical, experimental, operational or a combination of these depend on a number of considerations, 5 but this choice must be explained in relation to the study objectives.
The key reason for being concerned with sampling is the issue of validity-both internal and external of the study results. Controls or comparison groups are used in scientific research in order to increase the validity of the conclusions.
Control groups are necessary in all analytical epidemiological studies, in experimental studies of drug trials, in research on effects of intervention programmes and disease control measures and in many other investigations.
Some descriptive studies studies of existing data, surveys may not require control groups. Sample size: The proposal should provide information and justification basis on which the sample size is calculated about sample size in the methodology section. A smaller sample size than needed can also be unethical as it exposes human subjects to risk with no benefit to scientific knowledge.
Calculation of sample size has been made easy by computer software programmes, but the principles underlying the estimation should be well understood. Interventions: If an intervention is introduced, a description must be given of the drugs or devices proprietary names, manufacturer, chemical composition, dose, frequency of administration if they are already commercially available. Before the proposal is submitted to the Ethics Committee for approval, two important documents mentioned below where appropriate must be appended to the proposal.
In additions, there is another vital issue of Conflict of Interest, wherein the researchers should furnish a statement regarding the same. The Informed consent form informed decision-making : A consent form, where appropriate, must be developed and attached to the proposal.
The use of medical terminology should be avoided as far as possible. Special care is needed when subjects are illiterate. It should explain why the study is being done and why the subject has been asked to participate. It should describe, in sequence, what will happen in the course of the study, giving enough detail for the subject to gain a clear idea of what to expect.
It should clarify whether or not the study procedures offer any benefits to the subject or to others, and explain the nature, likelihood and treatment of anticipated discomfort or adverse effects, including psychological and social risks, if any. Where relevant, a comparison with risks posed by standard drugs or treatment must be included. If the risks are unknown or a comparative risk cannot be given it should be so stated. It should assure the participant of confidentiality of the findings.
Ethics checklist: The proposal must describe the measures that will be undertaken to ensure that the proposed research is carried out in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical research involving Human Subjects. It is unethical to expose subjects to research that will have no value.
The use of vulnerable subjects as research participants needs special justification. Vulnerable subjects include those in prison, minors and persons with mental disability. In international research it is important to mention that the population in which the study is conducted will benefit from any potential outcome of the research and the research is not being conducted solely for the benefit of some other population. Justification is needed for any inducement, financial or otherwise, for the participants to be enrolled in the study.
Risks are not limited to physical harm. Psychological and social risks must also be considered. Research setting 5 : The research setting includes all the pertinent facets of the study, such as the population to be studied sampling frame , the place and time of study. Study instruments 3 , 5 : Instruments are the tools by which the data are collected.
For new a questionnaire which is being designed specifically for your study the details about preparing, precoding and pretesting of questionnaire should be furnished and the document appended to the proposal. Descriptions of other methods of observations like medical examination, laboratory tests and screening procedures is necessary- for established procedures, reference of published work cited but for new or modified procedure, an adequate description is necessary with justification for the same.
Collection of data: A short description of the protocol of data collection.Proposal Example A research proposal format consists of six introduction parts: Introduction. It is should be both brief write catchy. In this section you should describe the how to write topic sentences in essays problem you are going to work on, the methodology and the importance of your research to persuade the reader that the results term the study may be useful; Background. In this section, you should give a more detailed overview of the problem. It how not paper essay, so you should follow a clear structure and use a research paper example if needed.
.The results of Georgia military policy toward South Ossetia. Before the proposal is submitted to the Ethics Committee for approval, two important documents mentioned below where appropriate must be appended to the proposal. We decided to put an ease on the writing process and offer a list of ideas. Even if they do not conduct research themselves, they need to grasp the principles of the scientific method to understand the value and limitations of science and to be able to assess and evaluate results of research before applying them.
Methodology: The method section is very important because it tells your research Committee how you plan to tackle your research problem. Descriptions of other methods of observations like medical examination, laboratory tests and screening procedures is necessary- for established procedures, reference of published work cited but for new or modified procedure, an adequate description is necessary with justification for the same.