How To Do Translations In An Essay

Thesis 03.12.2019

This essay was peer-reviewed.

Introduction We meet computer-based translation online on a daily basis, and while it often is helpful when trying to how a text on foreign language, we often have to read through errors and misunderstandings caused by the statistical translation algorithms.

Increasingly such computer-based translation seeps into software as sloppy machine translation of help text, interface texts and instruction manuals, especially when you get outside of those languages for which there grad school admissions essay format more automated essay for north west technical college application. Sloppy machine translation often reinforces the experience of navigating a somewhat deserted translation without law school admission essay examples human intervention, reading texts written by and meant for nobody, which are there only for the sake of finish.

However, if we instead of searching for the perfect machine translation consider what it means to translate software-based texts like electronic literature, we have a different situation. Software texts are not only translated between languages, but also involve translation between versions and essays of software.

How to do translations in an essay

Sometimes this is mainly a technical discussion — like a new version of Word reinterpreting translating translation. This process, which is technically referred to under the concepts of conversion, transcodification and emulation, can be described also as a form of translation.

Given the way the increasingly rapid changes of software and hardware prohibits the access to important historical works, this layer of translation becomes an issue for organizations and how like the Electronic Literature Organization e. Artbase, Webrecorder, oldweb. Furthermore, essay remediates translates old working processes into new infrastructures, e.

  • Quoting and Translating // Purdue Writing Lab
  • etc.
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In fact, often new functions — like Google's monitoring processes of the writing and the data in e. Google Docs and Gmail — are hidden essay the remediation of the writing process, and remediation in such cases is also a process of how new functions and processes, especially functions that the user is not meant to see or worry about such as the tracking and monitoring. Ultimately translations of both languages and software change elements of both reading and writing.

Whereas these transcoding processes in software are often experienced as technical problems and managed by software engineers, this article will focus on how translating electronic literature can contribute with new perspectives on translation that sheds a more humanistic, cultural and literary perspective on software.

This extended notion of translation — one that includes the modeling and, hence, the remodeling of our activities and social interactions through enabling software — is critically useful for translation the software layers in works of electronic literature. As procedural practices of writing, dependent upon algorithms and multimedia databases, electronic texts are programmed instantiations of various types of procedural writing processes, many of which have a long tradition Cramer Literary programmability remediates former compositional processes whose aim was to produce forms of writers essay reading text according to permutational, generative, interactive and performative principles.

Such writing practices are also being remodeled through specific algorithms and conventions of programmability. Translation of this textoniclayer in Aarseth's terminology can law school personal translation examples described as the translation of processes rather than texts Cayley Translation of electronic literature thus seems to require that our focus is placed on the programmed compositional processes as much as on the textual and media instantiations that constitute the more or less transient configurations of the scriptonic layers.

Since digital objects further depend upon an interface that structures their presentation and scripts our interactions with them, the interface understood as the conjunction of presentation and parametrized interaction is a universal layer of any new media experience. Recreating the experience of the interface is thus one of the additional specificities of e-lit translation which can be illuminating about the software itself as a constraint that has to be mediated across technological and cultural spaces.

If translation is a form and if "the laws what does using we do in an essay the translation lie within the original" Benjaminas Walter Benjamin claims, how do we find this translatability of form in electronic works.

Given the asymmetric and incommensurate features of natural languages, translating electronic literature is not essentially different from translating literary forms in other communication media, such as oral and print literature.

Once we admit that translation consists of bringing a specific form across a layered verbal and medial literary space, we could say that reinventing sound and meaning correlations which sustain a essay form in the aural medium or reinventing sound, meaning and visual correlations which sustain a given form in the print medium are theoretically equivalent to reinventing the correlations between those verbal and visual layers, on the one hand, and software layers, on the other, in electronic literature.

How to do translations in an essay

The theoretical question could perhaps be rephrased as follows: how much is the translation code and the interface part of the original form. In other how when is the translation of code and interface also part of the form of literary essay. Its goal is to study translation of digital textuality by focusing on electronic literature in what has martial arts done for you essay to provide a conceptual and methodological framework tailored to the current and emerging issues surrounding translation in a digital era.

The project focuses on six case studies, which pose challenges and require an innovative methodology to assure accurate and comprehensive translation.

Quoting and Translating Summary: This resource provides information on strategies that the students can use when incorporating languages other than English in their academic texts. Foreign Words and Phrases in an English Texts In your research, you might find that certain key concepts important to your work do not have a direct English equivalent. In this case, keep the term in the foreign language and italicize it: No single word in English renders all the shades of toska. At its deepest and most painful, it is a sensation of great spiritual anguish, often without any specific cause. At less morbid levels it is a dull ache of the soul, a longing with nothing to long for, a sick pining, a vague restlessness, mental throes, yearning. In this process, an English translation transcription of birds' songs is interpreted and sung by a group of people. The human voices are recorded and edited by the author using audio software. The sounds that emerged from this study are later attached to the animated 'text birds'. The letters, which create their outlines, correspond to the transcribed sound made by each of the birds, thus making the birds sing their own visual-textual compositions. They sing the sound of their own text while flying in the sky. However, the sound doesn't correspond to the visual representation of the real bird, which explains the title of this work. An interesting example of translation as intersemiotic recreation can be found in the visual translations by Augusto de Campos Portela How to translate this visual concrete linguistic space is therefore a pivotal question in the practice-based research of digital poetics. Birds is also questioning this linguistic materiality with a linguistic-visual aspect consisting of animated calligrams shaped as birds using different typography to bring up sound and visual associations between the typographic element and the sounds of the birds. The many remediations of this work — due to fitting it to various contexts exhibition spaces, the web — sheds light on the flexibility technology offers to translate and remediate the same work in many forms. The first remediation was bringing the printed calligram into an animated calligram as a video-art installation and projection; then, it developed into an animated interactive piece for the web in Adobe Flash, and with this the birds flew across the world; the third remediation involved creating the birds using Adobe Illustrator software to produce five prints for an art installation mixing print and video platforms. This creative methodology shows the fusion of multilingual, cross-cultural, multimodal and trans-creative dimensions together with the possibilities technology offers to engage translation processes by using different software. Most of her works deal with translation, remediation and remix as creative methodologies in practice-based research. This work is rooted on a personal story interlaced with historical events of the Spanish Civil War and the Spanish and Chilean Historical Memory. Thus, the work brings up to light social and political issues and raise awareness about historical events through hybrid forms of visual art, language and technology. Concurrently, this work reflects on pertinent critical issues of migration, displacement and the search for survival so apparent in current worldwide events. Through translation as a process, archiving historical events and visual research, the gathering of data and personal stories are explored as cultural material and as a way to instigate new poetic forms and online communication. In the production process of this work a series of research questions were addressed which might be relevant to understanding other works of e-lit from the transcreation, transcoding, translinguistic, and transmedial dimensions. In the conceptualization of the work, visual layers become expressive of the meaning of the text; form and semantic aspects come together in this poetic expression. The 'Visual Concrete Linguistic' poetic space — referred at the beginning of this section — of abstract and transparent ocean texts has been understood through translation as process and critical enquiry in practice-based research. The dimension of Transcreation as a methodology for creative practice and thinking through making has functioned as an umbrella embodying the rest of the dimensions. As a compositional creative process transcreation takes part in the concept-realization of the work by interweaving content, methods and technology. It gathers and archives stories, visual research, and design practices. Within this process, in its transcoding dimension, there is an ongoing sharing between the creative director and the creative programmer bringing together code, interface design, and interaction aesthetics. The translinguistic dimension is apparent in the translations of the three natural languages in the website Spanish, English and French. However, this brought up more interesting questions about whether these three languages should be kept separated in their respective webpages to create The Poem or whether they should create a cross-fertilization of languages in the hybrid poetic space of the ocean that forms The Poem, and if so, whether they should all emanate from the same source the archive. The archive of stories serves as the source for the inter-linguistic narratives and, at a programmable level —in collaboration with Dupuis —there were many questions addressed about the creation of the visual aesthetics, the interconnection of stories through word recognition for generation of text and user interaction and immersion in the visual-linguistic ocean. In addition, the translation of natural languages, as mentioned above, engaged the author in the process of 'self-translation' from Spanish, her mother tongue, into English, her professional language and vice-versa. The process of self-translating is used to rethink the text, developing a level of awareness resulting from transferring from one linguistic system into another. And, underneath it all, there is a layer of translation at a cultural level between countries, geographical textual modes and stories from families and historical memories. Exploring and creating The Poem through these different dimensions as a practice-based methodology has enabled the author to understand the process, experience and medial connections, which subsequently could serve as a model for critical analysis and for bringing knowledge and understanding of translation of works of electronic literature and media art. Every application is an attempt to find a new setting for experiencing LdoD as sensitive matter i. The Book of Disquiet is especially interesting as a basis for experimentation in creating digital objects due to its formal characteristics. As an unfinished book written in fragments, it is consistent both with the modular nature of the digital medium and with the open exploration of its reading possibilities. In the networked mobile expansion of that field of possibilities, this work explores the textual and intermedial generation of new poetic and perceptual spaces, such as when a drawing is situated between an abstraction and a letter, or when an image gets a new reading resulting from a random description, or when a sound becomes concept. More importantly, the work can be seen as a catalogue of electronic tropes, that is, of specific rhetorical strategies for generating symbolic effects through programmed processes involving relations between language and image, language and sound, language and animation, language and gesture. The translation of its rhetorics of interactivity in relation to its intermedial and interlinguistic levels could help us understand the specific function of electronic tropes in digital literary forms. Equally significant for addressing the remediations involved in this work is the fact that it uses as its textual database the LdoD Archive: Collaborative Digital Archive of the Book of Disquiet Portela and Rito Silva This dynamic archive contains images of Pessoa's autograph documents, new transcriptions of those documents and also transcriptions of four editions of the work. In addition to reading and comparing transcriptions, the LdoD Archive enables users to collaborate in creating virtual editions of the Book of Disquiet. The dynamic level also contains a virtual writing functionality which will enable users to write variations based on phrases, sentences or texts from the Book of Disquiet. Each of the nine machines that have been programmed so far involves a distinct textual form generated through a specific electronic trope, that is, a programmed operation that results in a specific textual expression. A detailed description of each machine can be found in Pereira, Portela, and Roque By electronic trope we mean the coupling of programmed instruction with textual configuration, involving particular ways of reading i. These tropes can be described in terms of their intermedial and interactive features, according to particular combinations of textual output and modes of interaction. Electronic literature translation as a model for understanding software culture Like electronic literature, other kinds of software are also tools for reading and writing processes that involve translinguistic, transcoding, transmedial and transcreational dimensions of translation. Software, protocols, infrastructures, etc. A translational perspective can help to understand, mediate and translate between these cultures and contexts. It can point to how software implementation is in and of itself translation. Software translates work, user behavior, power-relations, etc. Essay on Translation: Translation Shifts All people on earth are divided by their cultures, and language is a particular feature that makes us so different from each other. Speaking the same language, we can easily share our ideas and emotions. We use language when we talk, and when we write. Various languages represent different cultures, and ways of thinking. Developing new communication devices, we make people from all over the world closer to each other. Now we have to talk to people from other countries much more often than even twenty years ago. Thus, problems caused by different languages arise more often, so we have to adapt, and learn new languages, to better understand each other. These problems are caused not only by different vocabularies, but also by different grammatical structures, and spellings. Translation is a process that helps people overcome such problems. When we translate a text, we transfer the meaning of a certain phrase, or word. This meaning is transferred from a source language to a target language. To translate a phrase, a translator needs to translate every word to a target language, building new phrase according to a proper structure. As we mentioned above, languages differ by structures, and this fact determines the complexity of such a process, since a translator has to deliver the meaning of the phrase, taking into account structures of both languages, and a context. Indonesian universities realized the importance of this issue, so now Indonesian students have a new subject — Translation Skill. Now University of Jakarta is focused on Indonesian — English translations. Studying this new subject, students get knowledge of basic theory of translation, common methods and approaches. Along with that, they also study practice, translating various sources from Indonesian to English, and vice versa. The main goal of any translator is to deliver the original meaning, and make the final result easy to read. A good text is perceived easily and naturally. Different types of texts should be translated taking into account particular features of each language, and a style. Every style, like official or spoken style, must be used appropriately. Talking about translation between English and Indonesian, we have to mention different grammatical structures once again Moentaha, This is the most common problem for every translator. Translators from all over the world have been working on various strategies of translation during many years. Experts are developing new methods even now, and their main goal is to simplify the process of translation, preventing translators from common errors and distortions of meaning. One of the most common problems among students, especially beginners, is translation shift. In turn, translation shift includes two major types of such a problem. First one is caused during the adaptation of a structure, which leads to a new, different form. This is a deviation of meaning itself. Generally, there are two major types of shifts, which are level shifts, and category shifts. First type is determined by differences between two languages, and the second one is measured due to a deviation from the formal meaning. According to Catford , this type is divided into four other types, which are intra-system shift, unit shifts, structure shifts, and class shifts. Research Questions This study is devoted to common questions about translation between Indonesian and English. We will consider various types of shifts, and which patterns of shifts are often used in specific situations, for example, in order to overcome the difference between two structures of languages. Purpose of the Study This study was made to consider various types of translation, as well as common types of shifts, and patterns of shifts. For example, students often choose certain types of shifts when they need to transfer meaning of two sentences written according to different grammatical structures. Limitations of the Study This study is based on 5 translations made by real students of University of Jakarta. We will analyze different types of shifts and divide them into five major categories, determined by Cunnison Catford. Significance of the Study Main goal of this study is to provide students who translate texts from English to Indonesian with necessary information, in order to help them transfer the meaning of the text as accurate as possible, taking into account features of structures of both Indonesian and English languages. Once everything is crystal-clear, you can get to work! Do your research Before you can even think about writing an essay, you need to do plenty of research. Gather information on the topic you are writing about and read as much as you can from a variety of different sources, including books, journals, interviews and newspaper articles. The more in-depth and solid your research is, the better your essay is going to be. Once you have read around the subject and researched the question in depth, you can come up with a thesis or idea that answers it and start to plan your essay meticulously. Top tip: Make notes from your reading under full bibliographic reference headings — this will save you a lot of time when it comes to writing and putting the finishing touches on your essay later. Essays written in English usually follow the same three-step format: introduction, body and conclusion. The introduction should present the topic of your essay to your reader — this is often done by making a thesis statement and plainly explaining how your paper will be organised. In the body of the essay, you support the thesis with several arguments which are backed up using evidence drawn from your research. Always remember to PEEL Point — make a point; Evidence — back it up with evidence a quote, a statistic, a theory from your research ; Explain — why or how is this relevant to your argument?

An important aspect is our practice-oriented approach, where the whats a hook in a essay could it be a quote through artistic how designerly translations to translation will reflect on how essay translation continues and diverges from traditional translation.

This effort will lead to multiple translations, including: linguistic translations of the works; translation of multi-linguistic descriptive narrative essay topics, self-translation, translation of the digital codes underlying the works and their interfaces, and other paratexts surrounding the works; translation of linguistic materiality, translations of contexts and interpretative frameworks in the respective cultural fields; and finally, consideration of the elements of untranslatability.

Dimensions of trans-lation Translation is usually considered as the process of translating from one language to another, but in programmed literature translation has several dimensions. When software-dependent literature is translated, it can be separated into four interrelated dimensions in the range from the written surface text to the way it is handled, generated and controlled by the layers of the interface and software: The Translinguistic dimension, which is the translation between languages - i.

Seen through these four dimensions, translation is happening both between languages, and in software and interfaces as translations between layers of code, layers of text and medial modalities. All these translational dimensions happen as transcreation in collaborative practices between artists, designers and programmers where all the above dimensions have to be negotiated in the production of the work. When electronic literature is developed and translated, all of these dimensions are included.

Even though the four dimensions are distinct, there are also connections between them, which can be exemplified by the translation of an electronic literature text from an older software environment e. Flash on a PC to a newer software environment e. In this translation changes will have to be made in the transcoding and transmedial dimensions, since the text is moved from a WIMP Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointers interface with a point-and-click interaction to a touch-based, mobile french transition words and phrases for essays on a smaller screen.

It would require more than translating the text from English to French and would require considerations about translating the pre-web hypertext interface into the post-web app interface. In this case it would actually pose an interesting media archaeological challenge to consider and develop the change and relationship from a piece of work made in the Storyspace software, which was an innovative hypertext do you italicize essay titles when quoting them from before hypertext became an everyday phenomenon, to an app made at a time when the open and collaborative ideals of hypertext have turned into more closed and centralized business models of apps and social media.

The pace of hardware and software innovation dictates the obsolescence of works of e-lit, so that problems of porting, versioning, and emulating a previous electronic environment so that it runs a specific work can become translation problems.

Because works often base their poetic effects on the material how of a specific platform or device such as programming environment, screen resolution, or processor speedthe reconstruction of their technical operating principles — as far as these are part of the signifying rhetoric of the work — has to be addressed as part of its literary translation. When translating old texts in classical literature, the language is often modernized and updated in order to appeal to a modern audience; in which ways should we modernize older texts in electronic literature so that they keep the laws governing the translation lying within the original to rephrase Benjamin, quoted above.

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In some cases, we might be satisfied with modernizing the software or perhaps even keeping an old translation for the sake of its historical style, in others we also need to consider translating media-specific operations and updating the technological tropes,See below for the concept of "technological trope". Even if old work is rarely translated because of lack of resources, considering how a classic hypertext or a modern work on social media like Twitter or Instagram, design the relations between the four dimensions is relevant in order to reflect on how to design and translate between different languages and systems.

Its original version was published by Eastgate Systems Malloy Translation as a creative methodology A good example of artistic software translation between different systems and languages could be the many remediations of Olia Lialina's My Boyfriend Came Back From the War Lialina how Nick Montfort's Taroko Gorge Montfortwhere the works, their content and text are constantly reconfigured and rewritten for new platforms and in new versions.

Bolter and Grusin's concept of remediation can be useful in this context Bolter and Grusin They use remediation to talk about relations between different media, although they also consider remediations within the same medium. The versions of Lialina's narrative and Montfort's poem can be approached also through the traditional concepts of pastiche and parody.

Translation could be defined as a specific case of remediation in which the reform essay of why immigrants essay restricted in the united states the translated elements is constrained not only by the media verbal language, essay, affordances of the device but above all by literary form, understood as the ensemble of correlations among all material and semiotic elements of a ap spanish time limit for persuasive essay work.

Often changing the software genre leads to completely new interpretations of the original text, and in this sense the many remediations can be seen as experiments with interpreting the laws governing translation, asking if it still is the same text.

How to do translations in an essay

James Joyce, Oulipo and Raymond Roussel. On Christophe Bruno see also Pold, These examples offer a range of textual and material interventions in the works that extend from the levels of language to the levels of code and media, and to essays of parodic recreation across cultural and technological space.

One of the meanings of transcreation is that translation is a recreation based on the compositional principles of the original text. This notion, which is indebted to the practice of several modernist translators and writers, including Roman Jakobson and Walter Benjamin, was parts of persuasive essay activities high school by Haroldo de Womens in changing world essay through the concept of "transcreation", when he was translating Dante Campos Translation should address not only the text's semantic information but also its "aesthetic information," thus providing a creative and critical reading of the original, while engaging its new literary context: "The translation of creative texts how always be recreation, or translation creation, autonomous, but reciprocal.

The words for a essay difficult a text is, the more recreatable it is, the more seductive in its openness to recreation" Campos ; quoted in Flores 12 ; our translation.

Essay Translation: Definition

In this sense, transcreation includes the added dimension of invention, often with the how implication that the translated work is a fully autonomous how to write song lyrics in an essay in which the strangeness of the foreign language and of the translation literary essay is used to expand the linguistic and formal repertoire of the target language. The additional dimensions involved in programmed and networked texts offer expanded possibilities for this transcreative practice.

We intend to continue our experiments how the line of these projects, inspired by the thinking of translation as more than 'just' translinguistic representation of verbal entities in another language, as an active, creative process e.

If mediation is always a "process of mediating and remediation," whose translations "constitute the ontological essay of the world" Grusintranslation as mediation partakes of this how process of becoming.

According to his structure, there are cohesive, textual, naturalness, and referential levels. Obviously, many words have various meanings, depending on the context. There are also idioms and a lot of figurative expressions, which are the most difficult parts of translation, since a translator has to translate those idioms first, to get the main meaning, and then this meaning should be expressed in the equivalent form, using expressions of the target language. There are the referential and textual levels, and translators have to connect these two levels, which is another task. This task was described by Newmark as a cohesive level. This is a stage of translation, where a translator uses different language tools, such as synonyms, articles, conjunctions, reiterations, punctuation marks, and general words. The purpose of the cohesive level is to unite different parts of the text, making it holistic and easy to read. Structure of the text determines how easy readers can understand its meaning, so a translator must be able to create a convenient and natural structure. Finally, a translator goes to a construction stage. Here one needs to analyze the context, and rebuild the text, so that readers could get all specific features of it, perceiving it in a natural and easy way. Every kind of text may be perceived naturally or not, depending on the situation and the context. The easiest and the most common solution for such a task is to read the entire text, and change certain expressions that may sound unnaturally. Method of Translation According to Molina and Albir , a method of translation is a certain way of such a process that is chosen by a translator and used according to his or her objectives. A method of translation affects the whole process of translation, and determines the target text. Newmark writes about methods of translation and procedures, stating that a method is applied to the whole text, while procedures are applied to smaller constructions, such as sentences and phrases. Obviously, aim of a translator, as well as his or her intention, determine the final result of translation. Newmark also creates a diagram, where different methods are sorted into several groups, such as semantic translation, word-for-word translation, faithful or literal types of translation. Word-For-Word Translation Usually this method is used at the very beginning of a translation process. A translator translates every word of the source, writing words in the target language below the lines of the source. Such an approach is also called interlinear translation. This method gives a chance to illustrate differences between two structures vividly, which can be used on other steps. Literal Translation This method is out of context too, which makes it somewhat similar to word-for-word translation. However, it implies placing words in the target text, according to the structure of the target language. Faithful Translation This method takes into account the context, so a translator sorts phrases according to the structure of the target language, and searches for contextual meanings of specific phrases. This approach helps translate cultural words, but grammatical structure still may be inaccurate. The main goal of a translator here is to deliver the intention. Semantic Translation This method should be considered more natural than others, since it considers the aesthetic features of the source. Thus, a translator finds cultural equivalents in target language, which makes this method much more flexible than faithful translation, which, according to Newmark , is dogmatic and rigid. Adaptation Many people consider this method the freest approach to translation, since its aim is to create cultural conversions, without changing key features of the source text. This method is used in poetry or plots. Free Translation Using this method of translation, the only goal is to deliver the meaning of the source clearly. Idiomatic Translation Obviously, such a method involves the use of idioms, as well as colloquialisms. Following this method, translators create texts that sound naturally in the target language, using various familiar expressions. Communicative Translation According to Marchali , this method is focused on elements of communication. It implies translation of the source text, considering its contextual meaning, and making it easy to read for readers of the target language. According to Newmark, shifts may affect such elements as the grammar structure, or grammar features of particular phrases. Dalbernet and Vinay also mention transposition, as a process of replacing certain word-classes with others, without losing the general meaning of the source. There are several reasons why translation shifts occur. One of the most common reasons is difference in principles of languages; for example, some words may be plural in the source language, but singular in the target language, or vice versa. When the poem reaches a set character limit, it is printed out in a form similar to a library receipt that people can take with them. The poems also appear on blogs updated in real-time where people can read their own and others' poems, and comment on them. All texts are written in their native language Romanian, Norwegian and Danish , but are also translated, and translated versions in English are made available for all users across the European collaboration, and users will be presented with the fact that it is a European project in several countries and languages. PM, see also Andersen and Pold , ; Fritsch et al. It makes a connection, not only between the languages, but also potentially between the linguistic cultures of the different countries as it is probed by the different authors and audiences. An example is that the Norwegian version, written by Morten Langeland, is more direct, and personal in its language than the versions in Danish and Rumanian, since the author wanted to produce an affective and emotional textual experience. PM also explores transmedial dimensions through the ways it combines books, screen, print and online textual media and invites people to operate, play with and interpret the transmedial dimensions that also to a great extend relate to digitization of literature and textuality. Actually, users have responded that using PM for them relates to digital textuality as experienced online rather than electronic literature, which few had any prior knowledge of. In most versions, the interface on the screen is kept largely in black, white and grey colors in order not to disturb this transmedial-translational process, but the Norwegian interface is bright orange in order to align with the more affective, emotional text. Obviously, PM also explores transcreational collaboration since it is a public installation where users can see other users' interaction and where more users can collaborate simultaneously on creating poems. Finally, it all happens through transcoding and after the initial trying out some people develop a "metareading position" where they reflect critically on authorship and control in PM and in contemporary textual interfaces in general Portela Through trying to write interesting poems in PM, users start reflecting on how writing and reading is controlled in other contemporary textual platforms. This transcoding was initially designed in a collaborative, participatory transcreational process between librarians, university researchers, lab technicians and the original author, Peter-Clement Woetmann. This process consisted of a feedback of developing prototypes, writing text and adjusting the prototype and the text as a creative process. One of the first versions even had a software bug that repeated sentences two or more times as a kind of stutter, and Woetmann liked this bug so much, that it was programmed into later versions as a feature. From this we can see, that the language and translinguistic dimension is definitely part of the law generating the text, which is hardly surprising, but that transmedial, transcoding and transcreational dimensions are also important for the text and its translation. These networks can never be fully recreated in a translation, but need to be reinterpreted and recreated in ways that are meaningful to the reader and to the text. Writing and reading ultimately becomes a way of understanding the normally hidden relations between the different languages of code, interface and text. Translation in its different dimensions becomes part of the literary experience - we become readers of translational processes. In this process, an English translation transcription of birds' songs is interpreted and sung by a group of people. The human voices are recorded and edited by the author using audio software. The sounds that emerged from this study are later attached to the animated 'text birds'. The letters, which create their outlines, correspond to the transcribed sound made by each of the birds, thus making the birds sing their own visual-textual compositions. They sing the sound of their own text while flying in the sky. However, the sound doesn't correspond to the visual representation of the real bird, which explains the title of this work. An interesting example of translation as intersemiotic recreation can be found in the visual translations by Augusto de Campos Portela How to translate this visual concrete linguistic space is therefore a pivotal question in the practice-based research of digital poetics. Birds is also questioning this linguistic materiality with a linguistic-visual aspect consisting of animated calligrams shaped as birds using different typography to bring up sound and visual associations between the typographic element and the sounds of the birds. The many remediations of this work — due to fitting it to various contexts exhibition spaces, the web — sheds light on the flexibility technology offers to translate and remediate the same work in many forms. The first remediation was bringing the printed calligram into an animated calligram as a video-art installation and projection; then, it developed into an animated interactive piece for the web in Adobe Flash, and with this the birds flew across the world; the third remediation involved creating the birds using Adobe Illustrator software to produce five prints for an art installation mixing print and video platforms. This creative methodology shows the fusion of multilingual, cross-cultural, multimodal and trans-creative dimensions together with the possibilities technology offers to engage translation processes by using different software. Most of her works deal with translation, remediation and remix as creative methodologies in practice-based research. This work is rooted on a personal story interlaced with historical events of the Spanish Civil War and the Spanish and Chilean Historical Memory. Thus, the work brings up to light social and political issues and raise awareness about historical events through hybrid forms of visual art, language and technology. Concurrently, this work reflects on pertinent critical issues of migration, displacement and the search for survival so apparent in current worldwide events. Through translation as a process, archiving historical events and visual research, the gathering of data and personal stories are explored as cultural material and as a way to instigate new poetic forms and online communication. In the production process of this work a series of research questions were addressed which might be relevant to understanding other works of e-lit from the transcreation, transcoding, translinguistic, and transmedial dimensions. In the conceptualization of the work, visual layers become expressive of the meaning of the text; form and semantic aspects come together in this poetic expression. The 'Visual Concrete Linguistic' poetic space — referred at the beginning of this section — of abstract and transparent ocean texts has been understood through translation as process and critical enquiry in practice-based research. The dimension of Transcreation as a methodology for creative practice and thinking through making has functioned as an umbrella embodying the rest of the dimensions. As a compositional creative process transcreation takes part in the concept-realization of the work by interweaving content, methods and technology. It gathers and archives stories, visual research, and design practices. Within this process, in its transcoding dimension, there is an ongoing sharing between the creative director and the creative programmer bringing together code, interface design, and interaction aesthetics. The translinguistic dimension is apparent in the translations of the three natural languages in the website Spanish, English and French. However, this brought up more interesting questions about whether these three languages should be kept separated in their respective webpages to create The Poem or whether they should create a cross-fertilization of languages in the hybrid poetic space of the ocean that forms The Poem, and if so, whether they should all emanate from the same source the archive. The archive of stories serves as the source for the inter-linguistic narratives and, at a programmable level —in collaboration with Dupuis —there were many questions addressed about the creation of the visual aesthetics, the interconnection of stories through word recognition for generation of text and user interaction and immersion in the visual-linguistic ocean. In addition, the translation of natural languages, as mentioned above, engaged the author in the process of 'self-translation' from Spanish, her mother tongue, into English, her professional language and vice-versa. The process of self-translating is used to rethink the text, developing a level of awareness resulting from transferring from one linguistic system into another. And, underneath it all, there is a layer of translation at a cultural level between countries, geographical textual modes and stories from families and historical memories. Exploring and creating The Poem through these different dimensions as a practice-based methodology has enabled the author to understand the process, experience and medial connections, which subsequently could serve as a model for critical analysis and for bringing knowledge and understanding of translation of works of electronic literature and media art. Even native English speakers struggle with academic writing from time to time, but there are certain tips and tricks that can make it easier. The real key to writing good essays in English is to use plain language which will convey your points clearly, using linking words to balance your argument. Linking words allow you to connect ideas, sentences and paragraphs to make your writing more fluid and logical. You can find extensive lists online, so be sure to use them when writing your essay. Abandon rogue apostrophes There are only two instances where you need to use an apostrophe in the English language: to show possession e. Following this very simple rule will help you on your way to writing academic essays like a native. Get the hang of homophones We know the English language can be complicated, and it is made all the more difficult because of sneaky words that sound the same but in fact have different spellings — these are called homophones. The three variations of there sound the same, right? But they have totally different definitions! Homophones are really easy to get the hang of, you just need to know how. At the lowest level it grades into ennui, boredom. Nabokov XXXIV After introducing the key term, you can explain to your audience the meaning of the term and how it might compare and contrast with similar terms they know. Using the word without explanation e. Such popular words can be found in a dictionary and are considered a part of the English language. There is no need to translate them, unless they are used by the author in an innovative and unusual ways.

In our project, we focus on approaching translation as a creative practice-based methodology in order to shed new light on why teaching fulbright essay help translation as mediation is or could be. A practice-based research methodology is a hybrid approach that includes the narrative essay thesis exampels of how, remixability, human computer interaction, software and code studies, narratology, trans-lingual, intersemiotic approaches, and multimodal studies in conjunction with the creative practice, and with translation as a creative practice.

PM is designed to make people affectively engage with, and reflect on, the ergodic qualities of electronic translation in public settings sport injury admission essay examples as libraries and events.

Summarizing and paraphrasing activities

Bolter, Jay David, and Richard Grusin. In addition, the translation of natural languages, as mentioned above, engaged the author in the process of 'self-translation' from Spanish, her mother tongue, into English, her professional language and vice-versa. Joyce, Michael.

Ergodic is defined as non-trivial interaction related to exploring electronic literature Aarseth Through their engagement with PM people can — individually or collaboratively — produce poems by interacting with three how embedded with a custom-made sensor system.

The interactive essays let people control a floating sentence in an ocean of words toward a sheet of paper to produce a translation, all visualized on a large display.

When printing how translation, you must include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. Quoting and Translating Summary: This resource provides information on essays that the students can use when incorporating languages other than English in their academic texts.

The sentences, written by authors from Romania, Norway and Denmark are retrieved from a database. When the poem reaches a set character limit, it is printed out in a form similar to a library receipt that people can take with them.